Effect of shading on yield, sugar content, phenolic acids and antioxidant property of coffee beans (Coffea Arabica L. cv. Catimor) harvested from north-eastern Thailand.J Sci Food Agric. 2012 Jul; 92(9):1956-63.JS
Environmental conditions, including shading, generally influence the physical and chemical qualities of coffee beans. The present study assessed the changes in some phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity and agronomic characters of coffee beans (Coffea arabica L. cv. Catimor) as affected by different shading conditions including full sun, three artificial shading conditions using a saran covering (50% shade, 60% shade, and 70% shade) and lychee shade.
Bean weight and bean size increased significantly (P < 0.05) when the shade level was progressively increased. The coffee beans grown under lychee shade exhibited superior bean yield, 1000-bean weight, total phenolic content and antioxidant activity compared to all other beans. Chlorogenic acid was the most predominant phenolic acid in all samples studied, being the highest in the beans grown under lychee shade, followed by 60% shade, 70% shade, 50% shade and full sun, respectively. In contrast, bean grown under full sun had the highest amount of vanillic acid and caffeic acid.
Antioxidant activity was highly positively associated with chlorogenic acid content. The content of total sugar (fructose, glucose and sucrose) was found highest in coffee beans grown in 60% shade, with fructose the predominant sugar. Under climatic conditions similar to this experiment, it is advisable that growers provide shade to the coffee crop to reduce heat from direct sunlight and promote yield as well as obtain good quality coffee beans.