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Omega-3 fatty acids and inflammatory processes.
Nutrients. 2010 Mar; 2(3):355-74.N

Abstract

Long chain fatty acids influence inflammation through a variety of mechanisms; many of these are mediated by, or at least associated with, changes in fatty acid composition of cell membranes. Changes in these compositions can modify membrane fluidity, cell signaling leading to altered gene expression, and the pattern of lipid mediator production. Cell involved in the inflammatory response are typically rich in the n-6 fatty acid arachidonic acid, but the contents of arachidonic acid and of the n-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) can be altered through oral administration of EPA and DHA. Eicosanoids produced from arachidonic acid have roles in inflammation. EPA also gives rise to eicosanoids and these often have differing properties from those of arachidonic acid-derived eicosanoids. EPA and DHA give rise to newly discovered resolvins which are anti-inflammatory and inflammation resolving. Increased membrane content of EPA and DHA (and decreased arachidonic acid content) results in a changed pattern of production of eicosanoids and resolvins. Changing the fatty acid composition of cells involved in the inflammatory response also affects production of peptide mediators of inflammation (adhesion molecules, cytokines etc.). Thus, the fatty acid composition of cells involved in the inflammatory response influences their function; the contents of arachidonic acid, EPA and DHA appear to be especially important. The anti-inflammatory effects of marine n-3 PUFAs suggest that they may be useful as therapeutic agents in disorders with an inflammatory component.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Institute of Human Nutrition, School of Medicine, University of Southampton, MP887 Southampton General Hospital, Southampton, UK. pcc@soton.ac.uk

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

22254027

Citation

Calder, Philip C.. "Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Inflammatory Processes." Nutrients, vol. 2, no. 3, 2010, pp. 355-74.
Calder PC. Omega-3 fatty acids and inflammatory processes. Nutrients. 2010;2(3):355-74.
Calder, P. C. (2010). Omega-3 fatty acids and inflammatory processes. Nutrients, 2(3), 355-74. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu2030355
Calder PC. Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Inflammatory Processes. Nutrients. 2010;2(3):355-74. PubMed PMID: 22254027.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Omega-3 fatty acids and inflammatory processes. A1 - Calder,Philip C, Y1 - 2010/03/18/ PY - 2010/02/20/received PY - 2010/03/16/revised PY - 2010/03/16/accepted PY - 2012/1/19/entrez PY - 2010/3/1/pubmed PY - 2012/6/19/medline KW - cytokine KW - eicosanoid KW - fish oil KW - interleukin KW - leukocyte KW - macrophage KW - monocyte KW - neutrophil SP - 355 EP - 74 JF - Nutrients JO - Nutrients VL - 2 IS - 3 N2 - Long chain fatty acids influence inflammation through a variety of mechanisms; many of these are mediated by, or at least associated with, changes in fatty acid composition of cell membranes. Changes in these compositions can modify membrane fluidity, cell signaling leading to altered gene expression, and the pattern of lipid mediator production. Cell involved in the inflammatory response are typically rich in the n-6 fatty acid arachidonic acid, but the contents of arachidonic acid and of the n-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) can be altered through oral administration of EPA and DHA. Eicosanoids produced from arachidonic acid have roles in inflammation. EPA also gives rise to eicosanoids and these often have differing properties from those of arachidonic acid-derived eicosanoids. EPA and DHA give rise to newly discovered resolvins which are anti-inflammatory and inflammation resolving. Increased membrane content of EPA and DHA (and decreased arachidonic acid content) results in a changed pattern of production of eicosanoids and resolvins. Changing the fatty acid composition of cells involved in the inflammatory response also affects production of peptide mediators of inflammation (adhesion molecules, cytokines etc.). Thus, the fatty acid composition of cells involved in the inflammatory response influences their function; the contents of arachidonic acid, EPA and DHA appear to be especially important. The anti-inflammatory effects of marine n-3 PUFAs suggest that they may be useful as therapeutic agents in disorders with an inflammatory component. SN - 2072-6643 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/22254027/Omega_3_fatty_acids_and_inflammatory_processes_ L2 - http://www.mdpi.com/resolver?pii=nutrients-02-00355 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -