Screening for negative symptoms: preliminary results from the self-report version of the Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms.Schizophr Res 2012; 135(1-3):139-43SR
Though negative symptoms in schizophrenia are associated with a host of deleterious outcomes (e.g., White et al., 2009), not all individuals with schizophrenia suffer from negative symptoms (e.g., Blanchard et al., 2005). Thus, methods to quickly screen and identify patients for more intensive clinical interview assessments may have significant clinical and research utility. The present study is a preliminary examination of the reliability and validity of a self-report version of the newly developed Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms (CAINS; Blanchard et al., 2011; Forbes et al., 2010; Horan et al., 2011). The CAINS-SR is a 30-item self-report measure that assesses Experiential (avolition, anhedonia, asociality) and Expressive (blunted affect, alogia) domains of negative symptoms. Participants (N = 69) completed the CAINS-SR questionnaire and were evaluated with symptom interviews using the CAINS and other non-negative symptom interviews that assessed psychotic, affective, and other symptoms. The Experience subscale of the CAINS-SR demonstrated good internal consistency, convergent validity, and discriminant validity, while the poorer psychometric properties of the Expression subscale suggest that self-report of negative symptoms should focus on the experiential domain. Overall, preliminary findings indicate that the CAINS-SR (addressing experiential deficits) may be a useful complement to the clinician-rated interview measure. Future research on the sensitivity and specificity of the CAINS-SR will determine its suitability as a screening measure.