Beneficial hemodynamic effects of two weeks' milrinone treatment in conscious rats with heart failure.Eur J Pharmacol. 1990 Jul 17; 182(3):527-35.EJ
Milrinone is a phosphodiesterase inhibitor which combines vasodilating effects with inotropic effects. Hemodynamic improvement after acute administration and increased survival with chronic milrinone therapy in rats with heart failure have been reported before, and suggest long-term hemodynamic improvement. However, no detailed hemodynamic studies are available on prolonged milrinone therapy in rats with heart failure. Therefore, the hemodynamic effects of 2 weeks' milrinone therapy were now investigated in conscious rats with heart failure due to myocardial infarction. The effects were compared to hemodynamic changes after acute administration. Acute milrinone increased the baseline cardiac output in infarcted rats by increasing heart rate rather than stroke volume. However, the maximal cardiac output achieved when the heart was stimulated through a volume load was improved due to increased stroke volume as well as increased heart rate. The increase in maximally stimulated cardiac output after acute milrinone was found to be related to infarct size. Two weeks' milrinone therapy in chronically infarcted rats dose dependently restored the hemodynamic changes which were caused by infarction. In contrast to acute administration, two weeks' milrinone restored cardiac function without an increase in heart rate. The effects were achieved at a rate of administration which presumably has no acute inotropic effects. The data indicate that acute milrinone in infarcted rats has vasodilating effects. Positive inotropic effects, possibly masked by concomitant venodilatation at baseline conditions, became overt after stimulation by volume loading. Long-term milrinone dose dependently restored cardiac function in infarcted rats without effects on heart rate or mean arterial pressure, suggesting that different mechanisms may be involved.