[The role of specific IgE to evolution and prognosis of cow's milk protein allergies in children].Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi 2011 Oct-Dec; 115(4):1012-7RM
Cow's milk allergy affects 8% of infants less than 1 year of age. The allergy is usually transient, with most children tolerating ingested cow'milk by age 3 years. This prospective study analyzes the clinical course, development of tolerance and risk for other atopy (asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis, atopic dermatitis) in children with cow's milk allergy.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
We followed 71 infants hospitalized between January 2006 - January 2010 in two clinic of Pediatrics from Iaşi and Galaţi with gastro-intestinal, respiratory and skin signs and symptoms of cow's milk allergy. In this study were identified atopic symptoms and diseases, family history of atopy, measured serum total IgE levels and was evaluated development of tolerance to cow's milk. IgE levels was measured at diagnosis, 12 months after diagnosis and recovery tolerance to cow's milk. Patients were followed to acquire tolerance to cow milk.
The median age of the patients was 7.57 months +/- 2.73DS. IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy was detected in 40.85% (29 cases) of children at diagnosis. After 12 months of follow 7 (24.14%) of 29 cases initially IgE positive became negative. The first rechallenge was carried out 12 months after diagnosis at mean age 1.6 years (95%CI, 1.5-1.6 years) and the result was positive in 12 cases of IgE negative group. All children (100% of cases) with IgE-negative cow'milk allergy were tolerant by 3.0 years old (P < 0.0001) compared to 70.73% in children with positive IgE. In the end 17.24% of patiens with IgE-mediated cow milk allergy presented respiratory and skin atopic sings. Are there significant differences about the persistent cow'milk allergy between the group of children with positive IgE compared to negative IgE. (p = 0.1918, 95% CI).
Most children recover their tolerance to cow milk during childhood and those with negative IgE even at young ages. Patients with positive IgE have an increased risk for allergic diseases, food and inhaled allergens sensitization and development of persistent cow's milk allergy.