Comparison of malleable stylet and reusable and disposable bougies by paramedics in a simulated difficult intubation.Anaesthesia. 2012 Apr; 67(4):371-6.A
In a randomised crossover study, 60 ambulance paramedics attempted tracheal intubation of a manikin model of a Cormack and Lehane grade 3/4 view using a Portex stylet, Portex and Frova single-use bougies, and a Portex reusable bougie. Tracheal intubation within 30 s was achieved by 34/60 (57%) using the stylet, 18/60 (30%) using a Portex single-use bougie, 16/60 (27%) using a Frova single-use bougie and 5/60 (8%) using a Portex reusable bougie. The proportion intubating within 30 s was significantly higher with the stylet compared with any bougie (p < 0.001), but significantly lower with a Portex reusable bougie than any other device (p < 0.004). Participants rated the Portex reusable bougie as significantly more difficult to use than the other devices (p < 0.001). There was no evidence of a relationship between previous experience and success rate for any device.