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Habitual salt intake and risk of gastric cancer: a meta-analysis of prospective studies.

Abstract

BACKGROUND & AIMS

Systematic reviews of case-control studies evaluating the relationship between dietary salt intake and gastric cancer showed a positive association, however a quantitative analysis of longitudinal cohort studies is lacking. Therefore, we carried out a meta-analysis to assess the association between habitual salt intake and risk of gastric cancer in prospective studies.

METHODS

We performed a systematic search of published articles (1966-2010). Criteria for inclusion were: original articles, prospective adult population studies, assessment of salt intake as baseline exposure and of gastric cancer as outcome, follow-up of at least 4 years, indication of number of participants exposed and events across different salt intake categories.

RESULTS

Seven studies (10 cohorts) met the inclusion criteria (268 718 participants, 1474 events, follow-up 6-15 years). In the pooled analysis, "high" and "moderately high" vs "low" salt intake were both associated with increased risk of gastric cancer (RR = 1.68 [95% C.I. 1.17-2.41], p = 0.005 and respectively 1.41 [1.03-1.93], p = 0.032), with no evidence of publication bias. The association was stronger in the Japanese population and higher consumption of selected salt-rich foods was also associated with greater risk. Meta-regression analyses did not detect specific sources of heterogeneity.

CONCLUSIONS

Dietary salt intake was directly associated with risk of gastric cancer in prospective population studies, with progressively increasing risk across consumption levels.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, ESH - Excellence Center of Hypertension, Federico II University Medical School, via S Pansini 5, 80131 Naples, Italy.

    , , ,

    Source

    MeSH

    Diet
    Feeding Behavior
    Humans
    Risk Factors
    Sodium Chloride, Dietary
    Stomach Neoplasms

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Meta-Analysis
    Review

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    22296873

    Citation

    D'Elia, Lanfranco, et al. "Habitual Salt Intake and Risk of Gastric Cancer: a Meta-analysis of Prospective Studies." Clinical Nutrition (Edinburgh, Scotland), vol. 31, no. 4, 2012, pp. 489-98.
    D'Elia L, Rossi G, Ippolito R, et al. Habitual salt intake and risk of gastric cancer: a meta-analysis of prospective studies. Clin Nutr. 2012;31(4):489-98.
    D'Elia, L., Rossi, G., Ippolito, R., Cappuccio, F. P., & Strazzullo, P. (2012). Habitual salt intake and risk of gastric cancer: a meta-analysis of prospective studies. Clinical Nutrition (Edinburgh, Scotland), 31(4), pp. 489-98. doi:10.1016/j.clnu.2012.01.003.
    D'Elia L, et al. Habitual Salt Intake and Risk of Gastric Cancer: a Meta-analysis of Prospective Studies. Clin Nutr. 2012;31(4):489-98. PubMed PMID: 22296873.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Habitual salt intake and risk of gastric cancer: a meta-analysis of prospective studies. AU - D'Elia,Lanfranco, AU - Rossi,Giovanni, AU - Ippolito,Renato, AU - Cappuccio,Francesco P, AU - Strazzullo,Pasquale, Y1 - 2012/01/31/ PY - 2011/09/06/received PY - 2011/12/15/revised PY - 2012/01/09/accepted PY - 2012/2/3/entrez PY - 2012/2/3/pubmed PY - 2012/12/10/medline SP - 489 EP - 98 JF - Clinical nutrition (Edinburgh, Scotland) JO - Clin Nutr VL - 31 IS - 4 N2 - BACKGROUND & AIMS: Systematic reviews of case-control studies evaluating the relationship between dietary salt intake and gastric cancer showed a positive association, however a quantitative analysis of longitudinal cohort studies is lacking. Therefore, we carried out a meta-analysis to assess the association between habitual salt intake and risk of gastric cancer in prospective studies. METHODS: We performed a systematic search of published articles (1966-2010). Criteria for inclusion were: original articles, prospective adult population studies, assessment of salt intake as baseline exposure and of gastric cancer as outcome, follow-up of at least 4 years, indication of number of participants exposed and events across different salt intake categories. RESULTS: Seven studies (10 cohorts) met the inclusion criteria (268 718 participants, 1474 events, follow-up 6-15 years). In the pooled analysis, "high" and "moderately high" vs "low" salt intake were both associated with increased risk of gastric cancer (RR = 1.68 [95% C.I. 1.17-2.41], p = 0.005 and respectively 1.41 [1.03-1.93], p = 0.032), with no evidence of publication bias. The association was stronger in the Japanese population and higher consumption of selected salt-rich foods was also associated with greater risk. Meta-regression analyses did not detect specific sources of heterogeneity. CONCLUSIONS: Dietary salt intake was directly associated with risk of gastric cancer in prospective population studies, with progressively increasing risk across consumption levels. SN - 1532-1983 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/22296873/full_citation L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0261-5614(12)00005-2 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -