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The endocannabinoid N-arachidonoyl dopamine (NADA) selectively induces oxidative stress-mediated cell death in hepatic stellate cells but not in hepatocytes.
Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2012 Apr 15; 302(8):G873-87.AJ

Abstract

The endocannabinoid system is a crucial regulator of hepatic fibrogenesis. We have previously shown that the endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA) is a lipid mediator that blocks proliferation and induces death in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), the main fibrogenic cell type in the liver, but not in hepatocytes. However, the effects of other endocannabinoids such as N-arachidonoyl dopamine (NADA) have not yet been investigated. The NADA-synthesizing enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase was mainly expressed in sympathetic neurons in portal tracts. Its expression pattern stayed unchanged in normal or fibrotic liver. NADA dose dependently induced cell death in culture-activated primary murine or human HSCs after 2-4 h, starting from 5 μM. Despite caspase 3 cleavage, NADA-mediated cell death showed typical features of necrosis, including ATP depletion. Although the cannabinoid receptors CB1, CB2, or transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V, member 1 were expressed in HSCs, their pharmacological or genetic blockade failed to inhibit NADA-mediated death, indicating a cannabinoid-receptor-independent mechanism. Interestingly, membrane cholesterol depletion with methyl-β-cyclodextrin inhibited AEA- but not NADA-induced death. NADA significantly induced reactive oxygen species formation in HSCs. The antioxidant glutathione (GSH) significantly decreased NADA-induced cell death. Similar to AEA, primary hepatocytes were highly resistant against NADA-induced death. Resistance to NADA in hepatocytes was due to high levels of GSH, since GSH depletion significantly increased NADA-induced death. Moreover, high expression of the AEA-degrading enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) in hepatocytes also conferred resistance towards NADA-induced death, since pharmacological or genetic FAAH inhibition significantly augmented hepatocyte death. Thus the selective induction of cell death in HSCs proposes NADA as a novel antifibrogenic mediator.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Internal Medicine I, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

22301114

Citation

Wojtalla, Alexandra, et al. "The Endocannabinoid N-arachidonoyl Dopamine (NADA) Selectively Induces Oxidative Stress-mediated Cell Death in Hepatic Stellate Cells but Not in Hepatocytes." American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology, vol. 302, no. 8, 2012, pp. G873-87.
Wojtalla A, Herweck F, Granzow M, et al. The endocannabinoid N-arachidonoyl dopamine (NADA) selectively induces oxidative stress-mediated cell death in hepatic stellate cells but not in hepatocytes. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2012;302(8):G873-87.
Wojtalla, A., Herweck, F., Granzow, M., Klein, S., Trebicka, J., Huss, S., Lerner, R., Lutz, B., Schildberg, F. A., Knolle, P. A., Sauerbruch, T., Singer, M. V., Zimmer, A., & Siegmund, S. V. (2012). The endocannabinoid N-arachidonoyl dopamine (NADA) selectively induces oxidative stress-mediated cell death in hepatic stellate cells but not in hepatocytes. American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology, 302(8), G873-87. https://doi.org/10.1152/ajpgi.00241.2011
Wojtalla A, et al. The Endocannabinoid N-arachidonoyl Dopamine (NADA) Selectively Induces Oxidative Stress-mediated Cell Death in Hepatic Stellate Cells but Not in Hepatocytes. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2012 Apr 15;302(8):G873-87. PubMed PMID: 22301114.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - The endocannabinoid N-arachidonoyl dopamine (NADA) selectively induces oxidative stress-mediated cell death in hepatic stellate cells but not in hepatocytes. AU - Wojtalla,Alexandra, AU - Herweck,Frank, AU - Granzow,Michaela, AU - Klein,Sabine, AU - Trebicka,Jonel, AU - Huss,Sebastian, AU - Lerner,Raissa, AU - Lutz,Beat, AU - Schildberg,Frank Alexander, AU - Knolle,Percy Alexander, AU - Sauerbruch,Tilman, AU - Singer,Manfred Vincenz, AU - Zimmer,Andreas, AU - Siegmund,Sören Volker, Y1 - 2012/02/02/ PY - 2012/2/4/entrez PY - 2012/2/4/pubmed PY - 2012/5/30/medline SP - G873 EP - 87 JF - American journal of physiology. Gastrointestinal and liver physiology JO - Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol VL - 302 IS - 8 N2 - The endocannabinoid system is a crucial regulator of hepatic fibrogenesis. We have previously shown that the endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA) is a lipid mediator that blocks proliferation and induces death in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), the main fibrogenic cell type in the liver, but not in hepatocytes. However, the effects of other endocannabinoids such as N-arachidonoyl dopamine (NADA) have not yet been investigated. The NADA-synthesizing enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase was mainly expressed in sympathetic neurons in portal tracts. Its expression pattern stayed unchanged in normal or fibrotic liver. NADA dose dependently induced cell death in culture-activated primary murine or human HSCs after 2-4 h, starting from 5 μM. Despite caspase 3 cleavage, NADA-mediated cell death showed typical features of necrosis, including ATP depletion. Although the cannabinoid receptors CB1, CB2, or transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V, member 1 were expressed in HSCs, their pharmacological or genetic blockade failed to inhibit NADA-mediated death, indicating a cannabinoid-receptor-independent mechanism. Interestingly, membrane cholesterol depletion with methyl-β-cyclodextrin inhibited AEA- but not NADA-induced death. NADA significantly induced reactive oxygen species formation in HSCs. The antioxidant glutathione (GSH) significantly decreased NADA-induced cell death. Similar to AEA, primary hepatocytes were highly resistant against NADA-induced death. Resistance to NADA in hepatocytes was due to high levels of GSH, since GSH depletion significantly increased NADA-induced death. Moreover, high expression of the AEA-degrading enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) in hepatocytes also conferred resistance towards NADA-induced death, since pharmacological or genetic FAAH inhibition significantly augmented hepatocyte death. Thus the selective induction of cell death in HSCs proposes NADA as a novel antifibrogenic mediator. SN - 1522-1547 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/22301114/The_endocannabinoid_N_arachidonoyl_dopamine__NADA__selectively_induces_oxidative_stress_mediated_cell_death_in_hepatic_stellate_cells_but_not_in_hepatocytes_ L2 - https://journals.physiology.org/doi/10.1152/ajpgi.00241.2011?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub=pubmed DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -