Effect of chronic exposure to simazine on oxidative stress and antioxidant response in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 2012 Mar; 33(2):334-43.ET
We investigated the chronic effect of simazine, an s-triazine herbicide commonly present in aquatic environments, on the antioxidant system and oxidative stress indices in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). Fish were exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of 0.06 μg l(-1) (environmental concentration in Czech rivers), 2 mg l(-1), and 4 mg l(-1) for 14, 28 and 60 days. Indices of oxidative stress [reactive oxygen species (ROS), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS)], and antioxidant parameters [superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), reduced glutathione (GSH)] in fish brain, gill, muscle, liver, and intestine were measured. Chronic exposure to simazine showed the impact of the increased production of ROS leading to oxidative damage to lipids, proteins, and inhibition of antioxidant capacity. Activity of the antioxidant enzymes SOD, CAT, GPx and GSH in groups with high concentrations (2 mg l(-1), 4 mg l(-1)) increased at 14 and 28 days, but decreased after 60 days exposure (p<0.01) as compared with the control group. Changes in enzyme activity were mainly in the liver, but also in gills and brain. Prolonged exposure to simazine resulted in excess ROS formation finally resulting in oxidative damage to cell lipids and proteins and also inhibited antioxidant capacities in common carp tissue.