Evaluation of carbons derived from Gingelly oil cake for the removal of lead(II) from aqueous solutions.J Environ Sci Eng. 2010 Oct; 52(4):349-60.JE
The adsorption of lead(II) onto activated carbons prepared from Gingelly Oil Cake (GOC) by using thermal, sulphuric and zinc chloride activations was investigated. The effects of experimental parameters such as pH, initial concentration, contact time and adsorbents dosage on the lead(II) removal were studied. The data were fitted with Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin models to describe the equilibrium isotherms. The kinetic data fitted well with Lagergren pseudo first order and pseudo second order models. The maximum adsorption capacity for lead(II) on adsorbents calculated from Langmuir isotherm was found to be 105.26 mg/g and 114.94 mg/g for thermally activated and sulphuric acid activated carbons respectively. R2 values show that Langmuir model fits best to sulphuric acid activated carbon and Freundlich model fits best to thermally activated and zinc chloride activated carbons. The kinetic rates were best fitted to pseudo second order model. FT-IR analysis was used to obtain information on the nature of possible interaction between adsorbents and metal ions. SEM images confirmed the adsorption of lead(II) onto GOC adsorbents through morphological observations. Thermodynamic study showed the feasibility of process and spontaneous nature of the adsorption. The adsorbents were also tested for the removal of lead(II) from lead battery synthetic wastewater. The results indicate that carbons derived from GOC could be used to effectively adsorb lead(II) from aqueous solutions and wastewaters.