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Effects of ruminant trans fatty acids on cardiovascular disease and cancer: a comprehensive review of epidemiological, clinical, and mechanistic studies.

Abstract

There are 2 predominant sources of dietary trans fatty acids (TFA) in the food supply, those formed during the industrial partial hydrogenation of vegetable oils (iTFA) and those formed by biohydrogenation in ruminants (rTFA), including vaccenic acid (VA) and the naturally occurring isomer of conjugated linoleic acid, cis-9, trans-11 CLA (c9,t11-CLA). The objective of this review is to evaluate the evidence base from epidemiological and clinical studies to determine whether intake of rTFA isomers, specifically VA and c9,t11-CLA, differentially affects risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer compared with iTFA. In addition, animal and cell culture studies are reviewed to explore potential pro- and antiatherogenic mechanisms of VA and c9,t11-CLA. Some epidemiological studies suggest that a positive association with coronary heart disease risk exists between only iTFA isomers and not rTFA isomers. Small clinical studies have been conducted to establish cause-and-effect relationships between these different sources of TFA and biomarkers or risk factors of CVD with inconclusive results. The lack of detection of treatment effects reported in some studies may be due to insufficient statistical power. Many studies have used doses of rTFA that are not realistically attainable via diet; thus, further clinical studies are warranted. Associations between iTFA intake and cancer have been inconsistent, and associations between rTFA intake and cancer have not been well studied. Clinical studies have not been conducted investigating the cause-and-effect relationship between iTFA and rTFA intake and risk for cancers. Further research is needed to determine the health effects of VA and c9,t11-CLA in humans.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    USDA, Agricultural Research Service, Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA.

    , , , , ,

    Source

    MeSH

    Animals
    Cardiovascular Diseases
    Dairy Products
    Humans
    Hydrogenation
    Linoleic Acids, Conjugated
    Meat
    Neoplasms
    Oleic Acids
    Risk Factors
    Ruminants
    Trans Fatty Acids

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
    Review

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    22332075

    Citation

    Gebauer, Sarah K., et al. "Effects of Ruminant Trans Fatty Acids On Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer: a Comprehensive Review of Epidemiological, Clinical, and Mechanistic Studies." Advances in Nutrition (Bethesda, Md.), vol. 2, no. 4, 2011, pp. 332-54.
    Gebauer SK, Chardigny JM, Jakobsen MU, et al. Effects of ruminant trans fatty acids on cardiovascular disease and cancer: a comprehensive review of epidemiological, clinical, and mechanistic studies. Adv Nutr. 2011;2(4):332-54.
    Gebauer, S. K., Chardigny, J. M., Jakobsen, M. U., Lamarche, B., Lock, A. L., Proctor, S. D., & Baer, D. J. (2011). Effects of ruminant trans fatty acids on cardiovascular disease and cancer: a comprehensive review of epidemiological, clinical, and mechanistic studies. Advances in Nutrition (Bethesda, Md.), 2(4), pp. 332-54. doi:10.3945/an.111.000521.
    Gebauer SK, et al. Effects of Ruminant Trans Fatty Acids On Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer: a Comprehensive Review of Epidemiological, Clinical, and Mechanistic Studies. Adv Nutr. 2011;2(4):332-54. PubMed PMID: 22332075.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Effects of ruminant trans fatty acids on cardiovascular disease and cancer: a comprehensive review of epidemiological, clinical, and mechanistic studies. AU - Gebauer,Sarah K, AU - Chardigny,Jean-Michel, AU - Jakobsen,Marianne Uhre, AU - Lamarche,Benoît, AU - Lock,Adam L, AU - Proctor,Spencer D, AU - Baer,David J, Y1 - 2011/06/28/ PY - 2012/2/15/entrez PY - 2012/2/15/pubmed PY - 2012/6/1/medline SP - 332 EP - 54 JF - Advances in nutrition (Bethesda, Md.) JO - Adv Nutr VL - 2 IS - 4 N2 - There are 2 predominant sources of dietary trans fatty acids (TFA) in the food supply, those formed during the industrial partial hydrogenation of vegetable oils (iTFA) and those formed by biohydrogenation in ruminants (rTFA), including vaccenic acid (VA) and the naturally occurring isomer of conjugated linoleic acid, cis-9, trans-11 CLA (c9,t11-CLA). The objective of this review is to evaluate the evidence base from epidemiological and clinical studies to determine whether intake of rTFA isomers, specifically VA and c9,t11-CLA, differentially affects risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer compared with iTFA. In addition, animal and cell culture studies are reviewed to explore potential pro- and antiatherogenic mechanisms of VA and c9,t11-CLA. Some epidemiological studies suggest that a positive association with coronary heart disease risk exists between only iTFA isomers and not rTFA isomers. Small clinical studies have been conducted to establish cause-and-effect relationships between these different sources of TFA and biomarkers or risk factors of CVD with inconclusive results. The lack of detection of treatment effects reported in some studies may be due to insufficient statistical power. Many studies have used doses of rTFA that are not realistically attainable via diet; thus, further clinical studies are warranted. Associations between iTFA intake and cancer have been inconsistent, and associations between rTFA intake and cancer have not been well studied. Clinical studies have not been conducted investigating the cause-and-effect relationship between iTFA and rTFA intake and risk for cancers. Further research is needed to determine the health effects of VA and c9,t11-CLA in humans. SN - 2156-5376 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/22332075/Effects_of_ruminant_trans_fatty_acids_on_cardiovascular_disease_and_cancer:_a_comprehensive_review_of_epidemiological_clinical_and_mechanistic_studies_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/advances/article-lookup/doi/10.3945/an.111.000521 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -