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Low-carbohydrate, high-protein score and mortality in a northern Swedish population-based cohort.
Eur J Clin Nutr. 2012 Jun; 66(6):694-700.EJ

Abstract

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE

Long-term effects of carbohydrate-restricted diets are unclear. We examined a low-carbohydrate, high-protein (LCHP) score in relation to mortality.

SUBJECTS/METHODS

This is a population-based cohort study on adults in the northern Swedish county of Västerbotten. In 37,639 men (1460 deaths) and 39,680 women (923 deaths) from the population-based Västerbotten Intervention Program, deciles of energy-adjusted carbohydrate (descending) and protein (ascending) intake were added to create an LCHP score (2-20 points). Sex-specific hazard ratios (HR) were calculated by Cox regression.

RESULTS

Median intakes of carbohydrates, protein and fat in subjects with LCHP scores 2-20 ranged from 61.0% to 38.6%, 11.3% to 19.2% and 26.6% to 41.5% of total energy intake, respectively. High LCHP score (14-20 points) did not predict all-cause mortality compared with low LCHP score (2-8 points), after accounting for saturated fat intake and established risk factors (men: HR for high vs low 1.03 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.88-1.20), P for continuous = 0.721; women: HR for high vs low 1.10 (95% CI 0.91-1.32), P for continuous = 0.229). For cancer and cardiovascular disease, no clear associations were found. Carbohydrate intake was inversely associated with all-cause mortality, though only statistically significant in women (multivariate HR per decile increase 0.95 (95% CI 0.91-0.99), P = 0.010).

CONCLUSION

Our results do not support a clear, general association between LCHP score and mortality. Studies encompassing a wider range of macronutrient consumption may be necessary to detect such an association.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Nutritional Research, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden. lena.nilsson@nutrires.umu.seNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

22333874

Citation

Nilsson, L M., et al. "Low-carbohydrate, High-protein Score and Mortality in a Northern Swedish Population-based Cohort." European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 66, no. 6, 2012, pp. 694-700.
Nilsson LM, Winkvist A, Eliasson M, et al. Low-carbohydrate, high-protein score and mortality in a northern Swedish population-based cohort. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2012;66(6):694-700.
Nilsson, L. M., Winkvist, A., Eliasson, M., Jansson, J. H., Hallmans, G., Johansson, I., Lindahl, B., Lenner, P., & Van Guelpen, B. (2012). Low-carbohydrate, high-protein score and mortality in a northern Swedish population-based cohort. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 66(6), 694-700. https://doi.org/10.1038/ejcn.2012.9
Nilsson LM, et al. Low-carbohydrate, High-protein Score and Mortality in a Northern Swedish Population-based Cohort. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2012;66(6):694-700. PubMed PMID: 22333874.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Low-carbohydrate, high-protein score and mortality in a northern Swedish population-based cohort. AU - Nilsson,L M, AU - Winkvist,A, AU - Eliasson,M, AU - Jansson,J-H, AU - Hallmans,G, AU - Johansson,I, AU - Lindahl,B, AU - Lenner,P, AU - Van Guelpen,B, Y1 - 2012/02/15/ PY - 2012/2/16/entrez PY - 2012/2/16/pubmed PY - 2012/10/2/medline SP - 694 EP - 700 JF - European journal of clinical nutrition JO - Eur J Clin Nutr VL - 66 IS - 6 N2 - BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Long-term effects of carbohydrate-restricted diets are unclear. We examined a low-carbohydrate, high-protein (LCHP) score in relation to mortality. SUBJECTS/METHODS: This is a population-based cohort study on adults in the northern Swedish county of Västerbotten. In 37,639 men (1460 deaths) and 39,680 women (923 deaths) from the population-based Västerbotten Intervention Program, deciles of energy-adjusted carbohydrate (descending) and protein (ascending) intake were added to create an LCHP score (2-20 points). Sex-specific hazard ratios (HR) were calculated by Cox regression. RESULTS: Median intakes of carbohydrates, protein and fat in subjects with LCHP scores 2-20 ranged from 61.0% to 38.6%, 11.3% to 19.2% and 26.6% to 41.5% of total energy intake, respectively. High LCHP score (14-20 points) did not predict all-cause mortality compared with low LCHP score (2-8 points), after accounting for saturated fat intake and established risk factors (men: HR for high vs low 1.03 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.88-1.20), P for continuous = 0.721; women: HR for high vs low 1.10 (95% CI 0.91-1.32), P for continuous = 0.229). For cancer and cardiovascular disease, no clear associations were found. Carbohydrate intake was inversely associated with all-cause mortality, though only statistically significant in women (multivariate HR per decile increase 0.95 (95% CI 0.91-0.99), P = 0.010). CONCLUSION: Our results do not support a clear, general association between LCHP score and mortality. Studies encompassing a wider range of macronutrient consumption may be necessary to detect such an association. SN - 1476-5640 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/22333874/Low_carbohydrate_high_protein_score_and_mortality_in_a_northern_Swedish_population_based_cohort_ L2 - http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ejcn.2012.9 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -