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Non-capsulated and capsulated Haemophilus influenzae in children with acute otitis media in Venezuela: a prospective epidemiological study.
BMC Infect Dis 2012; 12:40BI

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) and Streptococcus pneumoniae are major causes of bacterial acute otitis media (AOM). Data regarding AOM are limited in Latin America. This is the first active surveillance in a private setting in Venezuela to characterize the bacterial etiology of AOM in children < 5 years of age.

METHODS

Between December 2008 and December 2009, 91 AOM episodes (including sporadic, recurrent and treatment failures) were studied in 87 children enrolled into a medical center in Caracas, Venezuela. Middle ear fluid samples were collected either by tympanocentesis or spontaneous otorrhea swab sampling method. Standard laboratory and microbiological techniques were used to identify bacteria and test for antimicrobial resistance. The results were interpreted according to Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) 2009 for non-meningitis isolates. All statistical analyses were performed using SAS 9.1 and Microsoft Excel (for graphical purposes).

RESULTS

Overall, bacteria were cultured from 69.2% (63 of the 91 episodes); at least one pathogen (S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, S. pyogenes or M. catarrhalis) was cultured from 65.9% (60/91) of episodes. H. influenzae (55.5%; 35/63 episodes) and S. pneumoniae (34.9%; 22/63 episodes) were the most frequently reported bacteria. Among H. influenzae isolates, 62.9% (22/35 episodes) were non-capsulated (NTHi) and 31.4% (11/35 episodes) were capsulated including types d, a, c and f, across all age groups. Low antibiotic resistance for H. influenzae was observed to amoxicillin/ampicillin (5.7%; 2/35 samples). NTHi was isolated in four of the six H. influenzae positive samples (66.7%) from recurrent episodes.

CONCLUSIONS

We found H. influenzae and S. pneumoniae to be the main pathogens causing AOM in Venezuela. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines with efficacy against these bacterial pathogens may have the potential to maximize protection against AOM.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Policlínica Metropolitana, Piso 1, consultorio 1-13, Urbanización Caurimare, Calle A-1, Caracas, Venezuela. naranjo.laura1@gmail.comNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

22335965

Citation

Naranjo, Laura, et al. "Non-capsulated and Capsulated Haemophilus Influenzae in Children With Acute Otitis Media in Venezuela: a Prospective Epidemiological Study." BMC Infectious Diseases, vol. 12, 2012, p. 40.
Naranjo L, Suarez JA, DeAntonio R, et al. Non-capsulated and capsulated Haemophilus influenzae in children with acute otitis media in Venezuela: a prospective epidemiological study. BMC Infect Dis. 2012;12:40.
Naranjo, L., Suarez, J. A., DeAntonio, R., Sanchez, F., Calvo, A., Spadola, E., ... Colindres, R. E. (2012). Non-capsulated and capsulated Haemophilus influenzae in children with acute otitis media in Venezuela: a prospective epidemiological study. BMC Infectious Diseases, 12, p. 40. doi:10.1186/1471-2334-12-40.
Naranjo L, et al. Non-capsulated and Capsulated Haemophilus Influenzae in Children With Acute Otitis Media in Venezuela: a Prospective Epidemiological Study. BMC Infect Dis. 2012 Feb 15;12:40. PubMed PMID: 22335965.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Non-capsulated and capsulated Haemophilus influenzae in children with acute otitis media in Venezuela: a prospective epidemiological study. AU - Naranjo,Laura, AU - Suarez,Jose Antonio, AU - DeAntonio,Rodrigo, AU - Sanchez,Francis, AU - Calvo,Alberto, AU - Spadola,Enza, AU - Rodríguez,Nicolás, AU - Andrade,Omaira, AU - Bertuglia,Francisca, AU - Márquez,Nelly, AU - Castrejon,Maria Mercedes, AU - Ortega-Barria,Eduardo, AU - Colindres,Romulo E, Y1 - 2012/02/15/ PY - 2011/09/28/received PY - 2012/02/15/accepted PY - 2012/2/17/entrez PY - 2012/2/18/pubmed PY - 2012/5/18/medline SP - 40 EP - 40 JF - BMC infectious diseases JO - BMC Infect. Dis. VL - 12 N2 - BACKGROUND: Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) and Streptococcus pneumoniae are major causes of bacterial acute otitis media (AOM). Data regarding AOM are limited in Latin America. This is the first active surveillance in a private setting in Venezuela to characterize the bacterial etiology of AOM in children < 5 years of age. METHODS: Between December 2008 and December 2009, 91 AOM episodes (including sporadic, recurrent and treatment failures) were studied in 87 children enrolled into a medical center in Caracas, Venezuela. Middle ear fluid samples were collected either by tympanocentesis or spontaneous otorrhea swab sampling method. Standard laboratory and microbiological techniques were used to identify bacteria and test for antimicrobial resistance. The results were interpreted according to Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) 2009 for non-meningitis isolates. All statistical analyses were performed using SAS 9.1 and Microsoft Excel (for graphical purposes). RESULTS: Overall, bacteria were cultured from 69.2% (63 of the 91 episodes); at least one pathogen (S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, S. pyogenes or M. catarrhalis) was cultured from 65.9% (60/91) of episodes. H. influenzae (55.5%; 35/63 episodes) and S. pneumoniae (34.9%; 22/63 episodes) were the most frequently reported bacteria. Among H. influenzae isolates, 62.9% (22/35 episodes) were non-capsulated (NTHi) and 31.4% (11/35 episodes) were capsulated including types d, a, c and f, across all age groups. Low antibiotic resistance for H. influenzae was observed to amoxicillin/ampicillin (5.7%; 2/35 samples). NTHi was isolated in four of the six H. influenzae positive samples (66.7%) from recurrent episodes. CONCLUSIONS: We found H. influenzae and S. pneumoniae to be the main pathogens causing AOM in Venezuela. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines with efficacy against these bacterial pathogens may have the potential to maximize protection against AOM. SN - 1471-2334 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/22335965/Non_capsulated_and_capsulated_Haemophilus_influenzae_in_children_with_acute_otitis_media_in_Venezuela:_a_prospective_epidemiological_study_ L2 - https://bmcinfectdis.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2334-12-40 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -