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Morphometry of the orbital region soft tissues in Down syndrome.
J Craniofac Surg. 2012 Jan; 23(1):198-202.JC

Abstract

The orbital region of subjects with Down syndrome (DS) has been scanty described so far. We wanted to detail the morphologic characteristics of the soft tissue orbital region in Italian and North Sudanese subjects with DS. The three-dimensional coordinates of 10 landmarks on the orbital soft tissues were obtained using computerized anthropometry in 53 Italian and 64 North Sudanese subjects with DS aged 4 to 52 years, and in 461 (Italian) and 682 (North Sudanese) sex- and age-matched controls. From the landmarks, linear distances, ratios, areas, and angles were calculated, z scores computed, and compared by t-tests and analyses of covariance. In North Sudanese DS subjects, intercanthal width and height-to-length ratio were increased; biorbital width, eye height, length, and area were reduced. Eye fissure and orbital inclinations relative to Frankfort plane were reduced, whereas orbital inclinations versus the true horizontal were increased. In Italian DS men, orbital height and height-to-length ratio were increased, eye length was decreased; orbital inclination versus the true horizontal was increased. For almost all measurements, a significant effect of age was found. No effects of sex were found. Ethnic group influenced orbital height, area, and orbital inclination versus Frankfort plane. All paired measurements had similar discrepancies on both sides. The orbital soft tissues of North Sudanese DS subjects differed from those of their reference subjects, but this was only partially true for Italian subjects. The 2 ethnic groups had different alterations in their soft tissue orbital regions that were influenced by age, but not by sex.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Functional Anatomy Research Center, Laboratorio di Anatomia Funzionale dell'Apparato Stomatognatico, Dipartimento di Morfologia Umana e Scienze Biomediche Città Studi, Facoltà di Medicina e Chirurgia, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milano, Italy. Chiarella.Sforza@unimi.itNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Comparative Study
Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

22337407

Citation

Sforza, Chiarella, et al. "Morphometry of the Orbital Region Soft Tissues in Down Syndrome." The Journal of Craniofacial Surgery, vol. 23, no. 1, 2012, pp. 198-202.
Sforza C, Elamin F, Dellavia C, et al. Morphometry of the orbital region soft tissues in Down syndrome. J Craniofac Surg. 2012;23(1):198-202.
Sforza, C., Elamin, F., Dellavia, C., Rosati, R., Lodetti, G., Mapelli, A., & Ferrario, V. F. (2012). Morphometry of the orbital region soft tissues in Down syndrome. The Journal of Craniofacial Surgery, 23(1), 198-202. https://doi.org/10.1097/SCS.0b013e3182418eba
Sforza C, et al. Morphometry of the Orbital Region Soft Tissues in Down Syndrome. J Craniofac Surg. 2012;23(1):198-202. PubMed PMID: 22337407.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Morphometry of the orbital region soft tissues in Down syndrome. AU - Sforza,Chiarella, AU - Elamin,Fadil, AU - Dellavia,Claudia, AU - Rosati,Riccardo, AU - Lodetti,Gianluigi, AU - Mapelli,Andrea, AU - Ferrario,Virgilio Ferruccio, PY - 2012/2/17/entrez PY - 2012/2/18/pubmed PY - 2012/7/25/medline SP - 198 EP - 202 JF - The Journal of craniofacial surgery JO - J Craniofac Surg VL - 23 IS - 1 N2 - The orbital region of subjects with Down syndrome (DS) has been scanty described so far. We wanted to detail the morphologic characteristics of the soft tissue orbital region in Italian and North Sudanese subjects with DS. The three-dimensional coordinates of 10 landmarks on the orbital soft tissues were obtained using computerized anthropometry in 53 Italian and 64 North Sudanese subjects with DS aged 4 to 52 years, and in 461 (Italian) and 682 (North Sudanese) sex- and age-matched controls. From the landmarks, linear distances, ratios, areas, and angles were calculated, z scores computed, and compared by t-tests and analyses of covariance. In North Sudanese DS subjects, intercanthal width and height-to-length ratio were increased; biorbital width, eye height, length, and area were reduced. Eye fissure and orbital inclinations relative to Frankfort plane were reduced, whereas orbital inclinations versus the true horizontal were increased. In Italian DS men, orbital height and height-to-length ratio were increased, eye length was decreased; orbital inclination versus the true horizontal was increased. For almost all measurements, a significant effect of age was found. No effects of sex were found. Ethnic group influenced orbital height, area, and orbital inclination versus Frankfort plane. All paired measurements had similar discrepancies on both sides. The orbital soft tissues of North Sudanese DS subjects differed from those of their reference subjects, but this was only partially true for Italian subjects. The 2 ethnic groups had different alterations in their soft tissue orbital regions that were influenced by age, but not by sex. SN - 1536-3732 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/22337407/Morphometry_of_the_orbital_region_soft_tissues_in_Down_syndrome_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1097/SCS.0b013e3182418eba DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -