Kinin receptors as targets for cancer therapy.Expert Opin Ther Targets 2012; 16(3):299-312EO
Biological fluids of cancer patients contain increased levels of kinins. Activation of kinin B1 and B2 receptors expressed on cancer cells produce an increase in cell proliferation, migration of tumor cells and release of MMPs, which are cellular and molecular events of primary importance for tumor growth. The effects of kinins on tumor cells may be amplified by stimulation of kinin receptors expressed on other cells, within the tumor microenvironment, which may in turn increase tumor growth.
This review provides a comprehensive discourse on kinins and their receptors in human neoplasia. Concepts that view kinin receptors as targets for human cancer are explored, whilst the molecular basis by which the new dimerized kinin receptor antagonists produce arrest of cell proliferation and apoptosis of cancer cells is also examined. Finally, the role of kinin receptor antagonists as therapeutic tools against human neoplasia is analyzed.
At the present time the available potent, dimerized kinin peptide antagonists, are either specific for B1 or B2 receptors, or are effective on both receptor types. The novel approach of using kinin receptor antagonists either alone or in combination therapy will play a definitive role in the treatment of cancer.