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Development of the caffeine withdrawal symptom questionnaire: caffeine withdrawal symptoms cluster into 7 factors.
Drug Alcohol Depend 2012; 124(3):229-34DA

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Habitual caffeine consumers who abstain from caffeine experience withdrawal symptoms such as headache, fatigue, difficulty concentrating, mood disturbances, and flu-like symptoms (Juliano and Griffiths, 2004). The caffeine withdrawal syndrome has been documented across many experimental studies; however, little is known about how withdrawal symptoms co-vary during a discrete episode. Furthermore, a validated measure of caffeine withdrawal is lacking.

OBJECTIVE

To develop, evaluate, and reduce a 23-item measure of caffeine withdrawal symptoms; the Caffeine Withdrawal Symptom Questionnaire (CWSQ), to a set of composite variables.

METHODS

Caffeine consumers (N=213) completed the CWSQ after 16h of caffeine abstinence. A subset of participants also completed the CWSQ during a preceding baseline period and/or after double-blind consumption of caffeinated coffee.

RESULTS

Principal components analysis resulted in a solution comprised of 7-factors: (1) Fatigue/drowsiness; (2) Low alertness/difficulty concentrating; (3) Mood disturbances; (4) Low sociability/motivation to work; (5) Nausea/upset stomach; (6) Flu-like feelings; and (7) Headache. With the exception of nausea/upset stomach, the CWSQ total score and individual composite scores were significantly greater during caffeine abstinence relative to both baseline and double-blind consumption of caffeinated coffee, thereby demonstrating sensitivity of the measure. Compared to non-daily coffee consumers, daily consumers had greater increases in total withdrawal, fatigue/drowsiness, low alertness/difficulty concentrating, mood disturbances, and headache.

CONCLUSIONS

Future directions include replication, assessment on a clinical population, and further examination of psychometric properties of the CWSQ. The CWSQ should facilitate the assessment and diagnosis of caffeine withdrawal and increase our knowledge of the caffeine withdrawal syndrome.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Psychology, American University, Washington, DC 20016, USA. juliano@american.eduNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

22341956

Citation

Juliano, Laura M., et al. "Development of the Caffeine Withdrawal Symptom Questionnaire: Caffeine Withdrawal Symptoms Cluster Into 7 Factors." Drug and Alcohol Dependence, vol. 124, no. 3, 2012, pp. 229-34.
Juliano LM, Huntley ED, Harrell PT, et al. Development of the caffeine withdrawal symptom questionnaire: caffeine withdrawal symptoms cluster into 7 factors. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2012;124(3):229-34.
Juliano, L. M., Huntley, E. D., Harrell, P. T., & Westerman, A. T. (2012). Development of the caffeine withdrawal symptom questionnaire: caffeine withdrawal symptoms cluster into 7 factors. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 124(3), pp. 229-34. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2012.01.009.
Juliano LM, et al. Development of the Caffeine Withdrawal Symptom Questionnaire: Caffeine Withdrawal Symptoms Cluster Into 7 Factors. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2012 Aug 1;124(3):229-34. PubMed PMID: 22341956.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Development of the caffeine withdrawal symptom questionnaire: caffeine withdrawal symptoms cluster into 7 factors. AU - Juliano,Laura M, AU - Huntley,Edward D, AU - Harrell,Paul T, AU - Westerman,Ashley T, Y1 - 2012/02/15/ PY - 2011/11/29/received PY - 2012/01/17/revised PY - 2012/01/19/accepted PY - 2012/2/21/entrez PY - 2012/2/22/pubmed PY - 2012/12/12/medline SP - 229 EP - 34 JF - Drug and alcohol dependence JO - Drug Alcohol Depend VL - 124 IS - 3 N2 - BACKGROUND: Habitual caffeine consumers who abstain from caffeine experience withdrawal symptoms such as headache, fatigue, difficulty concentrating, mood disturbances, and flu-like symptoms (Juliano and Griffiths, 2004). The caffeine withdrawal syndrome has been documented across many experimental studies; however, little is known about how withdrawal symptoms co-vary during a discrete episode. Furthermore, a validated measure of caffeine withdrawal is lacking. OBJECTIVE: To develop, evaluate, and reduce a 23-item measure of caffeine withdrawal symptoms; the Caffeine Withdrawal Symptom Questionnaire (CWSQ), to a set of composite variables. METHODS: Caffeine consumers (N=213) completed the CWSQ after 16h of caffeine abstinence. A subset of participants also completed the CWSQ during a preceding baseline period and/or after double-blind consumption of caffeinated coffee. RESULTS: Principal components analysis resulted in a solution comprised of 7-factors: (1) Fatigue/drowsiness; (2) Low alertness/difficulty concentrating; (3) Mood disturbances; (4) Low sociability/motivation to work; (5) Nausea/upset stomach; (6) Flu-like feelings; and (7) Headache. With the exception of nausea/upset stomach, the CWSQ total score and individual composite scores were significantly greater during caffeine abstinence relative to both baseline and double-blind consumption of caffeinated coffee, thereby demonstrating sensitivity of the measure. Compared to non-daily coffee consumers, daily consumers had greater increases in total withdrawal, fatigue/drowsiness, low alertness/difficulty concentrating, mood disturbances, and headache. CONCLUSIONS: Future directions include replication, assessment on a clinical population, and further examination of psychometric properties of the CWSQ. The CWSQ should facilitate the assessment and diagnosis of caffeine withdrawal and increase our knowledge of the caffeine withdrawal syndrome. SN - 1879-0046 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/22341956/Development_of_the_caffeine_withdrawal_symptom_questionnaire:_caffeine_withdrawal_symptoms_cluster_into_7_factors_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0376-8716(12)00026-9 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -