Neuroprotective effect of naringin by modulation of endogenous biomarkers in streptozotocin induced painful diabetic neuropathy.Fitoterapia 2012; 83(4):650-9F
Diabetes mellitus is a serious debilitating epidemic affecting all social strata in developing as well as developed countries. Diabetic neuropathy is most common of secondary complications associated with diabetes mellitus and is characterized by slowing of nerve conduction velocity, elevated pain, sensory loss and nerve fiber degeneration. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of naringin against streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic neuropathic pain in laboratory rats. Four weeks after intraperitoneal injection of STZ resulted in significant decrease in mechano-tactile allodynia, mechanical hyperalgesia, thermal hyperalgesia and motor nerve conduction velocity. Activity of endogenous antioxidant like superoxide dismutase as well as membrane bound inorganic phosphate enzyme was also found to be significantly decreased. It not only caused neural cell apoptosis but also enhanced lipid peroxide, nitrite, and inflammatory mediators' (TNF-α) level. Chronic treatment with naringin (40 and 80mg/kg) for 4 weeks significantly and dose dependently attenuated the decrease in level of nociceptive threshold, endogenous antioxidant and membrane bound inorganic phosphate enzyme. It also decreased the elevated levels of oxidative-nitrosative stress, inflammatory mediators as well as apoptosis in neural cells significantly and dose dependently. The important finding of the study is that, the naringin-insulin combination not only attenuated the diabetic condition but also reversed the neuropathic pain, whereas insulin or naringin alone only improved hyperglycemia but partially reversed the pain response in diabetic rats. Thus, naringin is a potential flavonone bearing antioxidant, antiapoptotic and disease modifying property acting via modulation of endogenous biomarker to inhibit diabetes induced neuropathic pain.