Speciation of echinostomes: evidence for the existence of two sympatric sibling species in the complex Echinoparyphium recurvatum (von Linstow 1873) (Digenea: Echinostomatidae).Parasitology. 1990 Aug; 101 Pt 1:35-42.P
Evidence for the existence of 2 first intermediate host-specific sibling species of the 45 collar-spined echinostome Echinoparyphium recurvatum is presented. Experimental studies on their life-cycles were carried out under controlled laboratory conditions. The two entities were found to be morphologically indistinguishable in all major respects, yet they exhibited distinct biological characteristics. One of the sibling species utilizes the freshwater lymnaeid pulmonate snail Lymnaea peregra as first intermediate host, and the adults occur in the anterior small intestine of the wildfowl experimental definitive host Anas platyrhynchos. The other utilizes the freshwater mesogastropod prosobranch snail Valvata piscinalis as first intermediate host, and the adults occur in the posterior small intestine and rectum of A. platyrhynchos. The existence of the two sibling species in sympatry may be explained by the fact that the life-cycles of the two forms represent two distinct cycles of transmission serving to reduce excessive competition between them.