Clinical profile of scrub typhus in children.Indian J Pediatr. 2012 Nov; 79(11):1459-62.IJ
To study the clinical profile and outcome of scrub typhus cases admitted in an urban referral centre.
This descriptive study describes the clinical profile of 67 children with scrub typhus, who were admitted in an urban referral centre(ICH & HC,Chennai) during the period between October 2010 and March 2011.The diagnosis was confirmed by IgM ELISA.
All children presented with fever. Eschar and rash were present in 46% and 35% cases, respectively. Cough, vomiting, altered sensorium and oliguria were present in 73%,59%,58% and 43%, respectively. Hepatosplenomegaly and pallor were the commonest findings encountered in more than 80% children. Other findings were edema, lymphadenopathy and icterus.Thrombocytopenia, elevated liver enzymes and leukocytosis were seen in 77%, 64% and 49% cases, respectively. Pleural effusion, ascites, shock and respiratory failure were seen in 61%, 47%,45%,34% cases, respectively. Acute renal failure, hepatic failure, multiorgan dysfunction syndrome (MODS), meningoencephalitis and acute respiratory distress syndrome(ARDS) were seen in 10%,10%,7%,6% and 4% cases, respectively. Doxycycline and azithromycin were the antibiotics used. The overall mortality rate was 11.94%. Causes of death were shock, ARDS, acute renal failure(ARF), MODS and disseminated intravascular coagulation(DIVC).
When a child presents with acute febrile illness, maculopapular or erythematous rash, hepatosplenomegaly, lymphadenopathy, thrombocytopenia and features suggestive of capillary leak, diagnosis of Scrub typhus must be considered and the child should be started on empirical therapy with doxycycline or azithromycin which is life saving.