Dietary predictors of symptom-associated gallstones in middle-aged women.Am J Clin Nutr. 1990 Nov; 52(5):916-22.AJ
In 1980, 88,837 women aged 34-59 y completed a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire and were followed for 4 y. Four hundred thirty-three women reported a cholecystectomy for recent cholecystitis, and 179 reported unremoved, newly symptomatic gallstones diagnosed by ultrasound or x ray. Among the 59,306 women with Quetelet's index of relative weight less than 25 kg/m2, inverse associations were observed between intakes of vegetable fat and vegetable protein and the risk of reportedly symptomatic gallastones, after adjusting for age, Quetelet's index in 1980, weight change between 1976 and 1980, energy intake, and alcohol intake. The relative risk in the highest quintile of vegetable fat intake, as compared with the lowest quintile, was 0.6 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.4-0.9], and the corresponding relative risk for vegetable protein intake was 0.7 (95% CI, 0.6-0.9). No significant associations were found with energy-adjusted intakes of cholesterol, animal fat, animal protein, carbohydrate, or sucrose.