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Trunk, pelvis, hip, and knee kinematics, hip strength, and gluteal muscle activation during a single-leg squat in males and females with and without patellofemoral pain syndrome.

Abstract

STUDY DESIGN

Controlled laboratory study using a cross-sectional design.

OBJECTIVES

To determine whether there are any differences between the sexes in trunk, pelvis, hip, and knee kinematics, hip strength, and gluteal muscle activation during the performance of a single-leg squat in individuals with patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) and control participants.

BACKGROUND

Though there is a greater incidence of PFPS in females, PFPS is also quite common in males. Trunk kinematics may affect hip and knee function; however, there is a lack of studies of the influence of the trunk in individuals with PFPS.

METHODS

Eighty subjects were distributed into 4 groups: females with PFPS, female controls, males with PFPS, and male controls. Trunk, pelvis, hip, and knee kinematics and gluteal muscle activation were evaluated during a single-leg squat. Hip abduction and external rotation eccentric strength was measured on an isokinetic dynamometer. Group differences were assessed using a 2-way multivariate analysis of variance (sex by PFPS status).

RESULTS

Compared to controls, subjects with PFPS had greater ipsilateral trunk lean (mean ± SD, 9.3° ± 5.3° versus 6.7° ± 3.0°; P = .012), contralateral pelvic drop (10.3° ± 4.7° versus 7.4° ± 3.8°; P = .003), hip adduction (14.8° ± 7.8° versus 10.8° ± 5.6°; P<.0001), and knee abduction (9.2° ± 5.0° versus 5.8° ± 3.4°; P<.0001) when performing a single-leg squat. Subjects with PFPS also had 18% less hip abduction and 17% less hip external rotation strength. Compared to female controls, females with PFPS had more hip internal rotation (P<.05) and less muscle activation of the gluteus medius (P = .017) during the single-leg squat.

CONCLUSION

Despite many similarities in findings for males and females with PFPS, there may be specific sex differences that warrant consideration in future studies and when clinically evaluating and treating females with PFPS.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Federal University of São Carlos, São Carlos, SP, Brazil. theresa.nakagawa@yahoo.com.br

    , ,

    Source

    MeSH

    Adolescent
    Adult
    Buttocks
    Confidence Intervals
    Cross-Sectional Studies
    Electromyography
    Female
    Hip Joint
    Humans
    Isometric Contraction
    Knee
    Male
    Muscle Strength
    Patella
    Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome
    Pelvis
    Sex Factors
    Torque
    United States
    Weight Lifting
    Young Adult

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    22402604

    Citation

    Nakagawa, Theresa H., et al. "Trunk, Pelvis, Hip, and Knee Kinematics, Hip Strength, and Gluteal Muscle Activation During a Single-leg Squat in Males and Females With and Without Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome." The Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy, vol. 42, no. 6, 2012, pp. 491-501.
    Nakagawa TH, Moriya ET, Maciel CD, et al. Trunk, pelvis, hip, and knee kinematics, hip strength, and gluteal muscle activation during a single-leg squat in males and females with and without patellofemoral pain syndrome. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2012;42(6):491-501.
    Nakagawa, T. H., Moriya, E. T., Maciel, C. D., & Serrão, F. V. (2012). Trunk, pelvis, hip, and knee kinematics, hip strength, and gluteal muscle activation during a single-leg squat in males and females with and without patellofemoral pain syndrome. The Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy, 42(6), pp. 491-501. doi:10.2519/jospt.2012.3987.
    Nakagawa TH, et al. Trunk, Pelvis, Hip, and Knee Kinematics, Hip Strength, and Gluteal Muscle Activation During a Single-leg Squat in Males and Females With and Without Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2012;42(6):491-501. PubMed PMID: 22402604.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Trunk, pelvis, hip, and knee kinematics, hip strength, and gluteal muscle activation during a single-leg squat in males and females with and without patellofemoral pain syndrome. AU - Nakagawa,Theresa H, AU - Moriya,Erika T U, AU - Maciel,Carlos D, AU - Serrão,Fábio V, Y1 - 2012/03/08/ PY - 2012/3/10/entrez PY - 2012/3/10/pubmed PY - 2012/11/7/medline SP - 491 EP - 501 JF - The Journal of orthopaedic and sports physical therapy JO - J Orthop Sports Phys Ther VL - 42 IS - 6 N2 - STUDY DESIGN: Controlled laboratory study using a cross-sectional design. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether there are any differences between the sexes in trunk, pelvis, hip, and knee kinematics, hip strength, and gluteal muscle activation during the performance of a single-leg squat in individuals with patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) and control participants. BACKGROUND: Though there is a greater incidence of PFPS in females, PFPS is also quite common in males. Trunk kinematics may affect hip and knee function; however, there is a lack of studies of the influence of the trunk in individuals with PFPS. METHODS: Eighty subjects were distributed into 4 groups: females with PFPS, female controls, males with PFPS, and male controls. Trunk, pelvis, hip, and knee kinematics and gluteal muscle activation were evaluated during a single-leg squat. Hip abduction and external rotation eccentric strength was measured on an isokinetic dynamometer. Group differences were assessed using a 2-way multivariate analysis of variance (sex by PFPS status). RESULTS: Compared to controls, subjects with PFPS had greater ipsilateral trunk lean (mean ± SD, 9.3° ± 5.3° versus 6.7° ± 3.0°; P = .012), contralateral pelvic drop (10.3° ± 4.7° versus 7.4° ± 3.8°; P = .003), hip adduction (14.8° ± 7.8° versus 10.8° ± 5.6°; P<.0001), and knee abduction (9.2° ± 5.0° versus 5.8° ± 3.4°; P<.0001) when performing a single-leg squat. Subjects with PFPS also had 18% less hip abduction and 17% less hip external rotation strength. Compared to female controls, females with PFPS had more hip internal rotation (P<.05) and less muscle activation of the gluteus medius (P = .017) during the single-leg squat. CONCLUSION: Despite many similarities in findings for males and females with PFPS, there may be specific sex differences that warrant consideration in future studies and when clinically evaluating and treating females with PFPS. SN - 1938-1344 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/22402604/Trunk_pelvis_hip_and_knee_kinematics_hip_strength_and_gluteal_muscle_activation_during_a_single_leg_squat_in_males_and_females_with_and_without_patellofemoral_pain_syndrome_ L2 - http://www.jospt.org/doi/full/10.2519/jospt.2012.3987?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&amp;rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&amp;rfr_dat=cr_pub=pubmed DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -