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Estimation of community-wide drugs use via stereoselective profiling of sewage.
Sci Total Environ. 2012 Apr 15; 423:142-50.ST

Abstract

This paper explores possibilities of applying enantiomeric profiling to solving problems related to estimation of drugs usage in communities via the sewage epidemiology approach: for the identification of whether drug residue results from consumption of illicit drug or metabolism of other drugs, verification of potency of used drugs and monitoring of changing patterns of drugs abuse. Due to the very complex nature of wastewater used in sewage epidemiology, which comes from the whole community rather than one individual, verification of the above is challenging but vital in accurate estimations of drugs abuse as well as providing comprehensive information regarding drug abuse trends. The results of this study indicated that amphetamine in raw wastewater was enriched with R(-)-enantiomer due to its abuse as racemate. Methamphetamine was found to be racemic or to be enriched with S(+)-enantiomer. MDMA was enriched with R(-)-MDMA, which was to be expected as MDMA is abused as racemate. MDA was enriched with S(+)-enantiomer, which suggests that its presence might be associated with MDMA abuse and not intentional MDA use. Out of the four possible isomers of ephedrine only natural 1R,2S(-)-ephedrine and 1S,2S(+)-pseudoephedrine were detected in raw wastewater and their diastereomeric fractions were found to be season dependent with higher contribution from 1S,2S(+)-pseudoephedrine over winter months and an enrichment with 1R,2S(-)-ephedrine during the spring and summer months. These findings were accompanied by a decrease of cumulative concentration of ephedrines throughout the sampling campaign between February and August. This is a very important finding indicating that non-enantioselective measurement of ephedrine concentrations cannot be a reliable indicator of actual potency of ephedrines used.

Authors+Show Affiliations

University of Bath, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Bath BA2 7AY, UK. b.kasprzyk-hordern@bath.ac.ukNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

22404981

Citation

Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara, and David R. Baker. "Estimation of Community-wide Drugs Use Via Stereoselective Profiling of Sewage." The Science of the Total Environment, vol. 423, 2012, pp. 142-50.
Kasprzyk-Hordern B, Baker DR. Estimation of community-wide drugs use via stereoselective profiling of sewage. Sci Total Environ. 2012;423:142-50.
Kasprzyk-Hordern, B., & Baker, D. R. (2012). Estimation of community-wide drugs use via stereoselective profiling of sewage. The Science of the Total Environment, 423, 142-50. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2012.02.019
Kasprzyk-Hordern B, Baker DR. Estimation of Community-wide Drugs Use Via Stereoselective Profiling of Sewage. Sci Total Environ. 2012 Apr 15;423:142-50. PubMed PMID: 22404981.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Estimation of community-wide drugs use via stereoselective profiling of sewage. AU - Kasprzyk-Hordern,Barbara, AU - Baker,David R, Y1 - 2012/03/07/ PY - 2011/11/04/received PY - 2012/02/09/revised PY - 2012/02/09/accepted PY - 2012/3/13/entrez PY - 2012/3/13/pubmed PY - 2013/4/4/medline SP - 142 EP - 50 JF - The Science of the total environment JO - Sci Total Environ VL - 423 N2 - This paper explores possibilities of applying enantiomeric profiling to solving problems related to estimation of drugs usage in communities via the sewage epidemiology approach: for the identification of whether drug residue results from consumption of illicit drug or metabolism of other drugs, verification of potency of used drugs and monitoring of changing patterns of drugs abuse. Due to the very complex nature of wastewater used in sewage epidemiology, which comes from the whole community rather than one individual, verification of the above is challenging but vital in accurate estimations of drugs abuse as well as providing comprehensive information regarding drug abuse trends. The results of this study indicated that amphetamine in raw wastewater was enriched with R(-)-enantiomer due to its abuse as racemate. Methamphetamine was found to be racemic or to be enriched with S(+)-enantiomer. MDMA was enriched with R(-)-MDMA, which was to be expected as MDMA is abused as racemate. MDA was enriched with S(+)-enantiomer, which suggests that its presence might be associated with MDMA abuse and not intentional MDA use. Out of the four possible isomers of ephedrine only natural 1R,2S(-)-ephedrine and 1S,2S(+)-pseudoephedrine were detected in raw wastewater and their diastereomeric fractions were found to be season dependent with higher contribution from 1S,2S(+)-pseudoephedrine over winter months and an enrichment with 1R,2S(-)-ephedrine during the spring and summer months. These findings were accompanied by a decrease of cumulative concentration of ephedrines throughout the sampling campaign between February and August. This is a very important finding indicating that non-enantioselective measurement of ephedrine concentrations cannot be a reliable indicator of actual potency of ephedrines used. SN - 1879-1026 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/22404981/Estimation_of_community_wide_drugs_use_via_stereoselective_profiling_of_sewage_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0048-9697(12)00194-5 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -