Influence of heating on the polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity of grape seed flour.J Food Sci. 2011 Aug; 76(6):C884-90.JF
The production of grape seed flour (GSF) from a waste product generated during winemaking, is of interest in product development applications due to its potential health benefits. However, before GSF can used in baking as a source of additional antioxidants, research on its heat stability is required. The overall objective of this study was to assess changes in phenolic content and antioxidant activity of GSF during heating. Merlot GSF was heated at 5 temperatures (120 to 240 °C) for 0 to 90 min. At each time/temperature combination, total phenolic content (TPC), total flavanoid content (TFC), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), 2,2 diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, and ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) of the extracts were determined. Specific polyphenolic compounds, including catechin, gallocatechin, epicatechin, and gallic acid were also measured. Results showed that when Merlot GSF was heated to ≥180 °C, significant decreases in the TPC and antioxidant activity, measured using FRAP, DPPH, and TEAC, were observed. Longer heating times also caused a reduction in antioxidant capability. Catechin and epicatechin content decreased with increasing heating temperature while gallocatechin and gallic acid content increased. Both catechin and epicatechin content had strong positive correlations (r > 0.91) with TPC and TFC, as well with FRAP and TEAC, suggesting that the GSF antioxidant activity is related to the presence of these particular compounds. Overall, while a decrease in antioxidant content was observed during heating, this occurred at higher baking temperatures. Thus GSF may be suitable for use as an ingredient in baked goods to bolster antioxidant content.
In order for Merlot grape seed flour (GSF) to be used in baking as a source of additional antioxidant compounds, the impact of heating on the polyphenolic compounds in the GSF needed to be examined. Thermal treatment of Merlot GSF caused significant decreases in the TPC, antioxidant power, and specific polyphenolic compounds when heated ≥180 °C. Thus while antioxidant content decreased with higher heating temperatures, this occurred at higher baking temperatures. Thus, GSF may be suitable for use as an ingredient in baked goods to bolster antioxidant content.