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Comparison of the flavor chemistry and flavor stability of mozzarella and cheddar wheys.
J Food Sci. 2011 Oct; 76(8):C1188-94.JF

Abstract

The flavor and flavor stability of fresh and stored liquid Cheddar and Mozzarella wheys were compared. Pasteurized, fat separated, and unseparated Cheddar and Mozzarella wheys were manufactured in triplicate and evaluated immediately or stored for 72 h at 3 °C. Flavor profiles were documented by descriptive sensory analysis, and volatile components were extracted and characterized by solvent extraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-olfactometry with aroma extract dilution analysis. Cheddar and Mozzarella wheys were distinct by sensory and volatile analysis (P < 0.05). Fresh Cheddar whey had higher intensities of buttery and sweet aromatic flavors and higher cardboard flavor intensities following storage compared to Mozzarella whey. High aroma impact compounds (FD(log3) > 8) in fresh Cheddar whey included diacetyl, 1-octen-3-one, 2-phenethanol, butyric acid, and (E)-2-nonenal, while those in Mozzarella whey included diacetyl, octanal, (E)-2-nonenal, and 2-phenethanol. Fresh Cheddar whey had higher concentrations of diacetyl, 2/3-methyl butanal, (E)-2-nonenal, 2-phenethanol, and 1-octen-3-one compared to fresh Mozzarella whey. Lipid oxidation products increased in both whey types during storage but increases were more pronounced in Cheddar whey than Mozzarella whey. Increases in lipid oxidation products were also more pronounced in wheys without fat separation compared to those with fat separation. Results suggest that similar compounds in different concentrations comprise the flavor of these 2 whey sources and that steps should be taken to minimize lipid oxidation during fluid whey processing. Practical Application: Cheddar and Mozzarella wheys are the primary sources of dried whey ingredients in the United States. An enhanced understanding of the flavor of these 2 raw product streams will enable manufacturers to identify methods to optimize quality.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Dept. Food, Bioprocessing, and Nutritional Sciences, Southeast Dairy Foods Research Center, North Carolina State Univ., Campus Box 7624, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Comparative Study
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

22417583

Citation

Liaw, I W., et al. "Comparison of the Flavor Chemistry and Flavor Stability of Mozzarella and Cheddar Wheys." Journal of Food Science, vol. 76, no. 8, 2011, pp. C1188-94.
Liaw IW, Evan Miracle R, Jervis SM, et al. Comparison of the flavor chemistry and flavor stability of mozzarella and cheddar wheys. J Food Sci. 2011;76(8):C1188-94.
Liaw, I. W., Evan Miracle, R., Jervis, S. M., Listiyani, M. A., & Drake, M. A. (2011). Comparison of the flavor chemistry and flavor stability of mozzarella and cheddar wheys. Journal of Food Science, 76(8), C1188-94. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-3841.2011.02360.x
Liaw IW, et al. Comparison of the Flavor Chemistry and Flavor Stability of Mozzarella and Cheddar Wheys. J Food Sci. 2011;76(8):C1188-94. PubMed PMID: 22417583.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Comparison of the flavor chemistry and flavor stability of mozzarella and cheddar wheys. AU - Liaw,I W, AU - Evan Miracle,R, AU - Jervis,S M, AU - Listiyani,M A D, AU - Drake,M A, PY - 2012/3/16/entrez PY - 2012/3/16/pubmed PY - 2012/7/7/medline SP - C1188 EP - 94 JF - Journal of food science JO - J Food Sci VL - 76 IS - 8 N2 - The flavor and flavor stability of fresh and stored liquid Cheddar and Mozzarella wheys were compared. Pasteurized, fat separated, and unseparated Cheddar and Mozzarella wheys were manufactured in triplicate and evaluated immediately or stored for 72 h at 3 °C. Flavor profiles were documented by descriptive sensory analysis, and volatile components were extracted and characterized by solvent extraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-olfactometry with aroma extract dilution analysis. Cheddar and Mozzarella wheys were distinct by sensory and volatile analysis (P < 0.05). Fresh Cheddar whey had higher intensities of buttery and sweet aromatic flavors and higher cardboard flavor intensities following storage compared to Mozzarella whey. High aroma impact compounds (FD(log3) > 8) in fresh Cheddar whey included diacetyl, 1-octen-3-one, 2-phenethanol, butyric acid, and (E)-2-nonenal, while those in Mozzarella whey included diacetyl, octanal, (E)-2-nonenal, and 2-phenethanol. Fresh Cheddar whey had higher concentrations of diacetyl, 2/3-methyl butanal, (E)-2-nonenal, 2-phenethanol, and 1-octen-3-one compared to fresh Mozzarella whey. Lipid oxidation products increased in both whey types during storage but increases were more pronounced in Cheddar whey than Mozzarella whey. Increases in lipid oxidation products were also more pronounced in wheys without fat separation compared to those with fat separation. Results suggest that similar compounds in different concentrations comprise the flavor of these 2 whey sources and that steps should be taken to minimize lipid oxidation during fluid whey processing. Practical Application: Cheddar and Mozzarella wheys are the primary sources of dried whey ingredients in the United States. An enhanced understanding of the flavor of these 2 raw product streams will enable manufacturers to identify methods to optimize quality. SN - 1750-3841 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/22417583/Comparison_of_the_flavor_chemistry_and_flavor_stability_of_mozzarella_and_cheddar_wheys_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-3841.2011.02360.x DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -