The Italian version of the Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire (FABQ-I): cross-cultural adaptation, factor analysis, reliability, validity, and sensitivity to change.Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2012 Mar 15; 37(6):E374-80.S
Evaluation of the psychometric properties of a translated and culturally adapted questionnaire.
Translating, culturally adapting, and validating the Italian version of the Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire (FABQ-I) to allow its use with Italian-speaking patients with low-back pain (LBP).
SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA
Growing attention is being given to standardized outcome measures to improve interventions for LBP. A translated form of the FABQ has never been validated in Italian patients with LBP.
The FABQ-I questionnaire was developed by means of forward-backward translation, a final review by an expert committee, and a test of the prefinal version to establish its correspondence with the original English version. The psychometric testing included factor analysis, reliability by internal consistency (Cronbach α) and test-retest reliability (intraclass coefficient correlation), convergent validity by comparing FABQ-I with the Italian version of the Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia (TSK-I), and discriminant validity by comparing FABQ-I with a visual analogue scale, the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (Pearson correlation).
It took 4 months to develop a shared version of the FABQ-I. The questionnaire was administered to 180 subjects and proved to be acceptable. Factor analysis revealed a 2-factor, 12-item solution (57% of explained variance). The questionnaire showed good internal consistency (α = 0.822) and high test-retest reliability (intraclass coefficient correlation = 0.869). Convergent validity showed a moderate correlation with TSK-I (r = 0.440), and discriminant validity showed moderate-poor correlations with a visual analogue scale (r = 0.335), Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (r = 0.414), and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (r = 0.258 for the Anxiety score and r = 0.246 for the Depression score). The results of the psychometric analyses of the subscales were similar to those of the scale as a whole.
The FABQ outcome measure was successfully translated into Italian and proved to have a good factorial structure and psychometric properties that replicated the results of other existing versions. Its use is recommended for research purposes.