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Linoleic and α-linolenic acid as precursor and inhibitor for the synthesis of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in liver and brain of growing pigs.
Animal 2012; 6(2):262-70A

Abstract

Studies suggested that in human adults, linoleic acid (LA) inhibits the biosynthesis of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), but their effects in growing subjects are largely unknown. We used growing pigs as a model to investigate whether high LA intake affects the conversion of n-3 LC-PUFA by determining fatty acid composition and mRNA levels of Δ5- and Δ6 desaturase and elongase 2 and -5 in liver and brain. In a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement, 32 gilts from eight litters were assigned to one of the four dietary treatments, varying in LA and α-linolenic acid (ALA) intakes. Low ALA and LA intakes were 0.15 and 1.31, and high ALA and LA intakes were 1.48 and 2.65 g/kg BW0.75 per day, respectively. LA intake increased arachidonic acid (ARA) in liver. ALA intake increased eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) concentrations, but decreased docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (all P < 0.01) in liver. Competition between the n-3 and n-6 LC-PUFA biosynthetic pathways was evidenced by reductions of ARA (>40%) at high ALA intakes. Concentration of EPA (>35%) and DHA (>20%) was decreased by high LA intake (all P < 0.001). Liver mRNA levels of Δ5- and Δ6 desaturase were increased by LA, and that of elongase 2 by both ALA and LA intakes. In contrast, brain DHA was virtually unaffected by dietary LA and ALA. Generally, dietary LA inhibited the biosynthesis of n-3 LC-PUFA in liver. ALA strongly affects the conversion of both hepatic n-3 and n-6 LC-PUFA. DHA levels in brain were irresponsive to these diets. Apart from Δ6 desaturase, elongase 2 may be a rate-limiting enzyme in the formation of DHA.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Animal Sciences, Animal Nutrition Group, Wageningen University, PO Box 338, 6700 AH, Marijkeweg 40, 6709 PG Wageningen, The Netherlands.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

22436184

Citation

Smink, W, et al. "Linoleic and Α-linolenic Acid as Precursor and Inhibitor for the Synthesis of Long-chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Liver and Brain of Growing Pigs." Animal : an International Journal of Animal Bioscience, vol. 6, no. 2, 2012, pp. 262-70.
Smink W, Gerrits WJ, Gloaguen M, et al. Linoleic and α-linolenic acid as precursor and inhibitor for the synthesis of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in liver and brain of growing pigs. Animal. 2012;6(2):262-70.
Smink, W., Gerrits, W. J., Gloaguen, M., Ruiter, A., & van Baal, J. (2012). Linoleic and α-linolenic acid as precursor and inhibitor for the synthesis of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in liver and brain of growing pigs. Animal : an International Journal of Animal Bioscience, 6(2), pp. 262-70. doi:10.1017/S1751731111001479.
Smink W, et al. Linoleic and Α-linolenic Acid as Precursor and Inhibitor for the Synthesis of Long-chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Liver and Brain of Growing Pigs. Animal. 2012;6(2):262-70. PubMed PMID: 22436184.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Linoleic and α-linolenic acid as precursor and inhibitor for the synthesis of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in liver and brain of growing pigs. AU - Smink,W, AU - Gerrits,W J J, AU - Gloaguen,M, AU - Ruiter,A, AU - van Baal,J, PY - 2012/3/23/entrez PY - 2012/3/23/pubmed PY - 2012/8/14/medline SP - 262 EP - 70 JF - Animal : an international journal of animal bioscience JO - Animal VL - 6 IS - 2 N2 - Studies suggested that in human adults, linoleic acid (LA) inhibits the biosynthesis of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), but their effects in growing subjects are largely unknown. We used growing pigs as a model to investigate whether high LA intake affects the conversion of n-3 LC-PUFA by determining fatty acid composition and mRNA levels of Δ5- and Δ6 desaturase and elongase 2 and -5 in liver and brain. In a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement, 32 gilts from eight litters were assigned to one of the four dietary treatments, varying in LA and α-linolenic acid (ALA) intakes. Low ALA and LA intakes were 0.15 and 1.31, and high ALA and LA intakes were 1.48 and 2.65 g/kg BW0.75 per day, respectively. LA intake increased arachidonic acid (ARA) in liver. ALA intake increased eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) concentrations, but decreased docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (all P < 0.01) in liver. Competition between the n-3 and n-6 LC-PUFA biosynthetic pathways was evidenced by reductions of ARA (>40%) at high ALA intakes. Concentration of EPA (>35%) and DHA (>20%) was decreased by high LA intake (all P < 0.001). Liver mRNA levels of Δ5- and Δ6 desaturase were increased by LA, and that of elongase 2 by both ALA and LA intakes. In contrast, brain DHA was virtually unaffected by dietary LA and ALA. Generally, dietary LA inhibited the biosynthesis of n-3 LC-PUFA in liver. ALA strongly affects the conversion of both hepatic n-3 and n-6 LC-PUFA. DHA levels in brain were irresponsive to these diets. Apart from Δ6 desaturase, elongase 2 may be a rate-limiting enzyme in the formation of DHA. SN - 1751-732X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/22436184/Linoleic_and_α_linolenic_acid_as_precursor_and_inhibitor_for_the_synthesis_of_long_chain_polyunsaturated_fatty_acids_in_liver_and_brain_of_growing_pigs_ L2 - https://www.cambridge.org/core/product/identifier/S1751731111001479/type/journal_article DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -