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The standard mouse assay of anti-venom quality does not measure antibodies neutralising the haemorrhagic activity of Vipera ammodytes venom.
Toxicon. 2012 Jun 01; 59(7-8):709-17.T

Abstract

The venom of Vipera ammodytes ammodytes (Vaa), like the venoms of other Viperinae snakes, is largely haemorrhagic and necrotising, and only to a lesser extent neurotoxic to humans. The components most extensively studied so far, and most probably involved in generating the observed pathologies, are haemorrhagins (H), members of the metalloproteinase group of enzymes, and neurotoxic ammodytoxins (Atxs), that belong to the secretory phospholipases A2. Rabbit antisera were prepared containing functional antibodies specific for each class of pathology-inducing venom constituents and for both classes together. The involvement of these antibodies in neutralising the toxicity of whole Vaa venom was assessed using the ED50 assay in mice. This assay is the only regulatorily approved assay for estimating anti-venom potency and as such has the task to quantify the active compound neutralising venom-induced pathology of the anti-venom. Fully functional anti-Atx antibodies were shown to be responsible for neutralising the portion of venom toxicity, while anti-H antibodies were not protective in this assay. Thus, the mouse ED50 assay, intended to measure the active principle of the anti-venom, does not measure antibodies specific for Vaa venom haemorrhagins, and consequently does not fulfil its primary task from the regulatory point of view.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Research and Development Department, Institute of Immunology, Inc., Rockefellerova 10, HR-10 000 Zagreb, Croatia. tkurtovic@imz.hrNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

22445824

Citation

Kurtović, Tihana, et al. "The Standard Mouse Assay of Anti-venom Quality Does Not Measure Antibodies Neutralising the Haemorrhagic Activity of Vipera Ammodytes Venom." Toxicon : Official Journal of the International Society On Toxinology, vol. 59, no. 7-8, 2012, pp. 709-17.
Kurtović T, Leonardi A, Lang Balija M, et al. The standard mouse assay of anti-venom quality does not measure antibodies neutralising the haemorrhagic activity of Vipera ammodytes venom. Toxicon. 2012;59(7-8):709-17.
Kurtović, T., Leonardi, A., Lang Balija, M., Brgles, M., Habjanec, L., Križaj, I., & Halassy, B. (2012). The standard mouse assay of anti-venom quality does not measure antibodies neutralising the haemorrhagic activity of Vipera ammodytes venom. Toxicon : Official Journal of the International Society On Toxinology, 59(7-8), 709-17. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2012.03.009
Kurtović T, et al. The Standard Mouse Assay of Anti-venom Quality Does Not Measure Antibodies Neutralising the Haemorrhagic Activity of Vipera Ammodytes Venom. Toxicon. 2012 Jun 1;59(7-8):709-17. PubMed PMID: 22445824.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - The standard mouse assay of anti-venom quality does not measure antibodies neutralising the haemorrhagic activity of Vipera ammodytes venom. AU - Kurtović,Tihana, AU - Leonardi,Adrijana, AU - Lang Balija,Maja, AU - Brgles,Marija, AU - Habjanec,Lidija, AU - Križaj,Igor, AU - Halassy,Beata, Y1 - 2012/03/15/ PY - 2011/10/18/received PY - 2012/02/21/revised PY - 2012/03/06/accepted PY - 2012/3/27/entrez PY - 2012/3/27/pubmed PY - 2012/8/21/medline SP - 709 EP - 17 JF - Toxicon : official journal of the International Society on Toxinology JO - Toxicon VL - 59 IS - 7-8 N2 - The venom of Vipera ammodytes ammodytes (Vaa), like the venoms of other Viperinae snakes, is largely haemorrhagic and necrotising, and only to a lesser extent neurotoxic to humans. The components most extensively studied so far, and most probably involved in generating the observed pathologies, are haemorrhagins (H), members of the metalloproteinase group of enzymes, and neurotoxic ammodytoxins (Atxs), that belong to the secretory phospholipases A2. Rabbit antisera were prepared containing functional antibodies specific for each class of pathology-inducing venom constituents and for both classes together. The involvement of these antibodies in neutralising the toxicity of whole Vaa venom was assessed using the ED50 assay in mice. This assay is the only regulatorily approved assay for estimating anti-venom potency and as such has the task to quantify the active compound neutralising venom-induced pathology of the anti-venom. Fully functional anti-Atx antibodies were shown to be responsible for neutralising the portion of venom toxicity, while anti-H antibodies were not protective in this assay. Thus, the mouse ED50 assay, intended to measure the active principle of the anti-venom, does not measure antibodies specific for Vaa venom haemorrhagins, and consequently does not fulfil its primary task from the regulatory point of view. SN - 1879-3150 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/22445824/The_standard_mouse_assay_of_anti_venom_quality_does_not_measure_antibodies_neutralising_the_haemorrhagic_activity_of_Vipera_ammodytes_venom_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0041-0101(12)00071-2 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -