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Incidence of schizophrenia and other psychoses in England, 1950-2009: a systematic review and meta-analyses.
PLoS One. 2012; 7(3):e31660.Plos

Abstract

BACKGROUND

We conducted a systematic review of incidence rates in England over a sixty-year period to determine the extent to which rates varied along accepted (age, sex) and less-accepted epidemiological gradients (ethnicity, migration and place of birth and upbringing, time).

OBJECTIVES

To determine variation in incidence of several psychotic disorders as above.

DATA SOURCES

Published and grey literature searches (MEDLINE, PSycINFO, EMBASE, CINAHL, ASSIA, HMIC), and identification of unpublished data through bibliographic searches and author communication.

STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA

Published 1950-2009; conducted wholly or partially in England; original data on incidence of non-organic adult-onset psychosis or one or more factor(s) pertaining to incidence.

PARTICIPANTS

People, 16-64 years, with first -onset psychosis, including non-affective psychoses, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, psychotic depression and substance-induced psychosis.

STUDY APPRAISAL AND SYNTHESIS METHODS

Title, abstract and full-text review by two independent raters to identify suitable citations. Data were extracted to a standardized extraction form. Descriptive appraisals of variation in rates, including tables and forest plots, and where suitable, random-effects meta-analyses and meta-regressions to test specific hypotheses; rate heterogeneity was assessed by the I²-statistic.

RESULTS

83 citations met inclusion. Pooled incidence of all psychoses (N = 9) was 31.7 per 100,000 person-years (95%CI: 24.6-40.9), 23.2 (95%CI: 18.3-29.5) for non-affective psychoses (N = 8), 15.2 (95%CI: 11.9-19.5) for schizophrenia (N = 15) and 12.4 (95%CI: 9.0-17.1) for affective psychoses (N = 7). This masked rate heterogeneity (I²: 0.54-0.97), possibly explained by socio-environmental factors; our review confirmed (via meta-regression) the typical age-sex interaction in psychosis risk, including secondary peak onset in women after 45 years. Rates of most disorders were elevated in several ethnic minority groups compared with the white (British) population. For example, for schizophrenia: black Caribbean (pooled RR: 5.6; 95%CI: 3.4-9.2; N = 5), black African (pooled RR: 4.7; 95%CI: 3.3-6.8; N = 5) and South Asian groups in England (pooled RR: 2.4; 95%CI: 1.3-4.5; N = 3). We found no evidence to support an overall change in the incidence of psychotic disorder over time, though diagnostic shifts (away from schizophrenia) were reported.

LIMITATIONS

Incidence studies were predominantly cross-sectional, limiting causal inference. Heterogeneity, while evidencing important variation, suggested pooled estimates require interpretation alongside our descriptive systematic results.

CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS OF KEY FINDINGS

Incidence of psychotic disorders varied markedly by age, sex, place and migration status/ethnicity. Stable incidence over time, together with a robust socio-environmental epidemiology, provides a platform for developing prediction models for health service planning.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Psychiatry, Herchel Smith Building for Brain and Mind Sciences, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom. jbk25@cam.ac.ukNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Meta-Analysis
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Review
Systematic Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

22457710

Citation

Kirkbride, James B., et al. "Incidence of Schizophrenia and Other Psychoses in England, 1950-2009: a Systematic Review and Meta-analyses." PloS One, vol. 7, no. 3, 2012, pp. e31660.
Kirkbride JB, Errazuriz A, Croudace TJ, et al. Incidence of schizophrenia and other psychoses in England, 1950-2009: a systematic review and meta-analyses. PLoS One. 2012;7(3):e31660.
Kirkbride, J. B., Errazuriz, A., Croudace, T. J., Morgan, C., Jackson, D., Boydell, J., Murray, R. M., & Jones, P. B. (2012). Incidence of schizophrenia and other psychoses in England, 1950-2009: a systematic review and meta-analyses. PloS One, 7(3), e31660. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0031660
Kirkbride JB, et al. Incidence of Schizophrenia and Other Psychoses in England, 1950-2009: a Systematic Review and Meta-analyses. PLoS One. 2012;7(3):e31660. PubMed PMID: 22457710.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Incidence of schizophrenia and other psychoses in England, 1950-2009: a systematic review and meta-analyses. AU - Kirkbride,James B, AU - Errazuriz,Antonia, AU - Croudace,Tim J, AU - Morgan,Craig, AU - Jackson,Daniel, AU - Boydell,Jane, AU - Murray,Robin M, AU - Jones,Peter B, Y1 - 2012/03/22/ PY - 2011/10/24/received PY - 2012/01/17/accepted PY - 2012/3/30/entrez PY - 2012/3/30/pubmed PY - 2012/8/4/medline SP - e31660 EP - e31660 JF - PloS one JO - PLoS One VL - 7 IS - 3 N2 - BACKGROUND: We conducted a systematic review of incidence rates in England over a sixty-year period to determine the extent to which rates varied along accepted (age, sex) and less-accepted epidemiological gradients (ethnicity, migration and place of birth and upbringing, time). OBJECTIVES: To determine variation in incidence of several psychotic disorders as above. DATA SOURCES: Published and grey literature searches (MEDLINE, PSycINFO, EMBASE, CINAHL, ASSIA, HMIC), and identification of unpublished data through bibliographic searches and author communication. STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Published 1950-2009; conducted wholly or partially in England; original data on incidence of non-organic adult-onset psychosis or one or more factor(s) pertaining to incidence. PARTICIPANTS: People, 16-64 years, with first -onset psychosis, including non-affective psychoses, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, psychotic depression and substance-induced psychosis. STUDY APPRAISAL AND SYNTHESIS METHODS: Title, abstract and full-text review by two independent raters to identify suitable citations. Data were extracted to a standardized extraction form. Descriptive appraisals of variation in rates, including tables and forest plots, and where suitable, random-effects meta-analyses and meta-regressions to test specific hypotheses; rate heterogeneity was assessed by the I²-statistic. RESULTS: 83 citations met inclusion. Pooled incidence of all psychoses (N = 9) was 31.7 per 100,000 person-years (95%CI: 24.6-40.9), 23.2 (95%CI: 18.3-29.5) for non-affective psychoses (N = 8), 15.2 (95%CI: 11.9-19.5) for schizophrenia (N = 15) and 12.4 (95%CI: 9.0-17.1) for affective psychoses (N = 7). This masked rate heterogeneity (I²: 0.54-0.97), possibly explained by socio-environmental factors; our review confirmed (via meta-regression) the typical age-sex interaction in psychosis risk, including secondary peak onset in women after 45 years. Rates of most disorders were elevated in several ethnic minority groups compared with the white (British) population. For example, for schizophrenia: black Caribbean (pooled RR: 5.6; 95%CI: 3.4-9.2; N = 5), black African (pooled RR: 4.7; 95%CI: 3.3-6.8; N = 5) and South Asian groups in England (pooled RR: 2.4; 95%CI: 1.3-4.5; N = 3). We found no evidence to support an overall change in the incidence of psychotic disorder over time, though diagnostic shifts (away from schizophrenia) were reported. LIMITATIONS: Incidence studies were predominantly cross-sectional, limiting causal inference. Heterogeneity, while evidencing important variation, suggested pooled estimates require interpretation alongside our descriptive systematic results. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS OF KEY FINDINGS: Incidence of psychotic disorders varied markedly by age, sex, place and migration status/ethnicity. Stable incidence over time, together with a robust socio-environmental epidemiology, provides a platform for developing prediction models for health service planning. SN - 1932-6203 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/22457710/Incidence_of_schizophrenia_and_other_psychoses_in_England_1950_2009:_a_systematic_review_and_meta_analyses_ L2 - https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0031660 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -