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Gender differences in self-conscious emotional experience: a meta-analysis.
Psychol Bull. 2012 Sep; 138(5):947-81.PB

Abstract

The self-conscious emotions (SCE) of guilt, shame, pride, and embarrassment are moral emotions, which motivate adherence to social norms and personal standards and emerge in early childhood following the development of self-awareness. Gender stereotypes of emotion maintain that women experience more guilt, shame, and embarrassment but that men experience more pride. To estimate the magnitude of gender differences in SCE experience and to determine the circumstances under which these gender differences vary, we meta-analyzed 697 effect sizes representing 236,304 individual ratings of SCE states and traits from 382 journal articles, dissertations, and unpublished data sets. Guilt (d = -0.27) and shame (d = -0.29) displayed small gender differences, whereas embarrassment (d = -0.08), authentic pride (d = -0.01), and hubristic pride (d = 0.09) showed gender similarities. Similar to previous findings of ethnic variations in gender differences in other psychological variables, gender differences in shame and guilt were significant only for White samples or samples with unspecified ethnicity. We found larger gender gaps in shame with trait (vs. state) scales, and in guilt and shame with situation- and scenario-based (vs. adjective- and statement-based) items, consistent with predictions that such scales and items tend to tap into global, nonspecific assessments of the self and thus reflect self-stereotyping and gender role assimilative effects. Gender differences in SCE about domains such as the body, sex, and food or eating tended to be larger than gender differences in SCE about other domains. These findings contribute to the literature demonstrating that blanket stereotypes about women's greater emotionality are inaccurate.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Psychology, University of Maryland-Baltimore County, 1000 Hilltop Circle, Baltimore, MD 21043, USA. nmeq@umbc.eduNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Meta-Analysis
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

22468881

Citation

Else-Quest, Nicole M., et al. "Gender Differences in Self-conscious Emotional Experience: a Meta-analysis." Psychological Bulletin, vol. 138, no. 5, 2012, pp. 947-81.
Else-Quest NM, Higgins A, Allison C, et al. Gender differences in self-conscious emotional experience: a meta-analysis. Psychol Bull. 2012;138(5):947-81.
Else-Quest, N. M., Higgins, A., Allison, C., & Morton, L. C. (2012). Gender differences in self-conscious emotional experience: a meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 138(5), 947-81. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0027930
Else-Quest NM, et al. Gender Differences in Self-conscious Emotional Experience: a Meta-analysis. Psychol Bull. 2012;138(5):947-81. PubMed PMID: 22468881.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Gender differences in self-conscious emotional experience: a meta-analysis. AU - Else-Quest,Nicole M, AU - Higgins,Ashley, AU - Allison,Carlie, AU - Morton,Lindsay C, Y1 - 2012/04/02/ PY - 2012/4/4/entrez PY - 2012/4/4/pubmed PY - 2013/1/10/medline SP - 947 EP - 81 JF - Psychological bulletin JO - Psychol Bull VL - 138 IS - 5 N2 - The self-conscious emotions (SCE) of guilt, shame, pride, and embarrassment are moral emotions, which motivate adherence to social norms and personal standards and emerge in early childhood following the development of self-awareness. Gender stereotypes of emotion maintain that women experience more guilt, shame, and embarrassment but that men experience more pride. To estimate the magnitude of gender differences in SCE experience and to determine the circumstances under which these gender differences vary, we meta-analyzed 697 effect sizes representing 236,304 individual ratings of SCE states and traits from 382 journal articles, dissertations, and unpublished data sets. Guilt (d = -0.27) and shame (d = -0.29) displayed small gender differences, whereas embarrassment (d = -0.08), authentic pride (d = -0.01), and hubristic pride (d = 0.09) showed gender similarities. Similar to previous findings of ethnic variations in gender differences in other psychological variables, gender differences in shame and guilt were significant only for White samples or samples with unspecified ethnicity. We found larger gender gaps in shame with trait (vs. state) scales, and in guilt and shame with situation- and scenario-based (vs. adjective- and statement-based) items, consistent with predictions that such scales and items tend to tap into global, nonspecific assessments of the self and thus reflect self-stereotyping and gender role assimilative effects. Gender differences in SCE about domains such as the body, sex, and food or eating tended to be larger than gender differences in SCE about other domains. These findings contribute to the literature demonstrating that blanket stereotypes about women's greater emotionality are inaccurate. SN - 1939-1455 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/22468881/Gender_differences_in_self_conscious_emotional_experience:_a_meta_analysis_ L2 - http://content.apa.org/journals/bul/138/5/947 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -