Panton-Valentine leukocidin gene sequence variation and phage in methicillin-resistant and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus from children in mainland China.Microbiol Immunol 2012; 56(3):155-62MI
To determine the variation in the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) gene sequences and different PVL-encoding phages of Staphylococcus aureus strains collected from children in mainland China, fifty-eight strains with PVL collected from 2007 to 2009 were used. Their molecular characteristics were examined. Primers were designed to sequence the PVL genes. Six PVL-encoding phages (ϕPVL, ϕ108PVL, ϕSLT, ϕSa2MW, ϕSa2958, and ϕSa2USA) were identified by PCR. Eleven sequence types (ST) were detected with ST59 (39.7%, 23/58) the most frequent ST, followed by 910 (22.4%, 13/58), and 338 (12.1%, 7/58). Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) were identified at 11 locations in the PVL genes. SNP (nucleotide 1396, A→G) and SNP (nucleotide 1546, A→G) were observed in >10 sequences. Four additional SNP were non-synonymous. Both SNP (nucleotide 16, C→A) and SNP (nucleotide 62, C→T) were present in the same ST59 strain. SNP (nucleotide 527, A→G) was present in five strains belonging to ST30, 121, 1, and 93. SNP (nucleotide 1436, A→C) was present in one ST30 strain. Fifteen strains belonging to ST910, ST217, and ST30 carried a PVL phage that had an icosahedral head morphology. Nine ST59 strains carried ϕ108PVL. Three ST88 strains carried a PVL phage that had an elongated head morphology. Twenty-seven strains, including 60.9% (14/23) of ST59 and all ST338 strains, had no detectable phage. In conclusion, sequence variation in PVL genes and PVL-encoding phages was generally related to the lineage. ST59 strains may indeed carry novel PVL phages.