A review of the complications of lacrimal occlusion with punctal and canalicular plugs.Orbit 2012; 31(2):86-93O
Punctal and canalicular plugs are widely used for both temporary and permanent occlusion of the lacrimal puncta in dry eyes. There are many designs and materials available on the market. While their efficacy in improving dry eye symptoms is widely proven, the gamut of complications associated with these devices have never been subject to a general review, although there are numerous case series in the literature associated with one particular device. This review aims to examine the track record of a variety of plugs currently in use, to review the management of complications, and propose strategies for both the prevention of these complications and their treatment.