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Full and partial peroxisome proliferation-activated receptor-γ agonists, but not δ agonist, rescue of dopaminergic neurons in the 6-OHDA parkinsonian model is associated with inhibition of microglial activation and MMP expression.
J Neuroimmunol. 2012 May 15; 246(1-2):69-77.JN

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is a nuclear hormone receptor that has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitor properties. PPARγ agonists have been shown to have neuroprotective effects in various neurodegeneration models where inflammation is implicated, including models of Parkinson's disease. However, no studies have looked at the effects of partial PPARγ agonists.

EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH

The neuroprotective effects of the PPARγ full agonist, pioglitazone (20 mg/kg), partial PPARγ agonist GW855266X (15 mg/kg) and PPAR-δ full agonist GW610742X (10 mg/kg) were investigated in the 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) model of Parkinson's disease when administered prior to or post 6-OHDA lesioning. The integrity of the nigrostriatal system was assessed by assessing the numbers dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) and by assessing striatal dopamine content. The degree of microglia activation in the SN was also immunohistochemistry assessed utilizing the marker OX-6 for activated microglia and CD-68 a marker for phagocytic microglia. Additionally we performed immunocytochemistry for MMP3 in the SN. Finally, we investigated whether a period of drug withdrawal for a further 7 days affected the neuroprotection produced by the PPARγ agonists.

KEY RESULTS

Both pioglitazone and GW855266X protected against 6-OHDA induced loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and depletion of striatal dopamine when administered orally twice daily for either 1) 7 day prior to and 7 days post lesioning or 2) for 7 days starting 2 days post lesioning when neurons will be severely traumatized. 6-OHDA lesioning was associated with an increase in microglia activation and in numbers of MMP-3 immunoreactive cells which was attenuated by pioglitazone and GW855266X. Neuroprotective effects were not replicated using the PPARδ agonist GW610742X. Subsequent withdrawal of both pioglitazone and GW855266X, for a further 7 days negated any neuroprotective effect suggesting that long-term administration may be required to attenuate the inflammatory response.

CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS

For the first time a partial PPAR-γ agonist has been shown to be neuroprotectory when administered post lesioning in a parkinsonian model. Effects may be via the inhibition of microglial and MMP activation and support further research.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Parkinson's Disease Research Group, Centre for Neuroscience, Division of Experimental Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, UK.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Comparative Study
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

22498097

Citation

Sadeghian, M, et al. "Full and Partial Peroxisome Proliferation-activated Receptor-γ Agonists, but Not Δ Agonist, Rescue of Dopaminergic Neurons in the 6-OHDA Parkinsonian Model Is Associated With Inhibition of Microglial Activation and MMP Expression." Journal of Neuroimmunology, vol. 246, no. 1-2, 2012, pp. 69-77.
Sadeghian M, Marinova-Mutafchieva L, Broom L, et al. Full and partial peroxisome proliferation-activated receptor-γ agonists, but not δ agonist, rescue of dopaminergic neurons in the 6-OHDA parkinsonian model is associated with inhibition of microglial activation and MMP expression. J Neuroimmunol. 2012;246(1-2):69-77.
Sadeghian, M., Marinova-Mutafchieva, L., Broom, L., Davis, J. B., Virley, D., Medhurst, A. D., & Dexter, D. T. (2012). Full and partial peroxisome proliferation-activated receptor-γ agonists, but not δ agonist, rescue of dopaminergic neurons in the 6-OHDA parkinsonian model is associated with inhibition of microglial activation and MMP expression. Journal of Neuroimmunology, 246(1-2), 69-77. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jneuroim.2012.03.010
Sadeghian M, et al. Full and Partial Peroxisome Proliferation-activated Receptor-γ Agonists, but Not Δ Agonist, Rescue of Dopaminergic Neurons in the 6-OHDA Parkinsonian Model Is Associated With Inhibition of Microglial Activation and MMP Expression. J Neuroimmunol. 2012 May 15;246(1-2):69-77. PubMed PMID: 22498097.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Full and partial peroxisome proliferation-activated receptor-γ agonists, but not δ agonist, rescue of dopaminergic neurons in the 6-OHDA parkinsonian model is associated with inhibition of microglial activation and MMP expression. AU - Sadeghian,M, AU - Marinova-Mutafchieva,L, AU - Broom,L, AU - Davis,J B, AU - Virley,D, AU - Medhurst,A D, AU - Dexter,D T, Y1 - 2012/04/11/ PY - 2010/03/03/received PY - 2012/02/16/revised PY - 2012/03/14/accepted PY - 2012/4/14/entrez PY - 2012/4/14/pubmed PY - 2012/6/20/medline SP - 69 EP - 77 JF - Journal of neuroimmunology JO - J Neuroimmunol VL - 246 IS - 1-2 N2 - BACKGROUND: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is a nuclear hormone receptor that has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitor properties. PPARγ agonists have been shown to have neuroprotective effects in various neurodegeneration models where inflammation is implicated, including models of Parkinson's disease. However, no studies have looked at the effects of partial PPARγ agonists. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: The neuroprotective effects of the PPARγ full agonist, pioglitazone (20 mg/kg), partial PPARγ agonist GW855266X (15 mg/kg) and PPAR-δ full agonist GW610742X (10 mg/kg) were investigated in the 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) model of Parkinson's disease when administered prior to or post 6-OHDA lesioning. The integrity of the nigrostriatal system was assessed by assessing the numbers dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) and by assessing striatal dopamine content. The degree of microglia activation in the SN was also immunohistochemistry assessed utilizing the marker OX-6 for activated microglia and CD-68 a marker for phagocytic microglia. Additionally we performed immunocytochemistry for MMP3 in the SN. Finally, we investigated whether a period of drug withdrawal for a further 7 days affected the neuroprotection produced by the PPARγ agonists. KEY RESULTS: Both pioglitazone and GW855266X protected against 6-OHDA induced loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and depletion of striatal dopamine when administered orally twice daily for either 1) 7 day prior to and 7 days post lesioning or 2) for 7 days starting 2 days post lesioning when neurons will be severely traumatized. 6-OHDA lesioning was associated with an increase in microglia activation and in numbers of MMP-3 immunoreactive cells which was attenuated by pioglitazone and GW855266X. Neuroprotective effects were not replicated using the PPARδ agonist GW610742X. Subsequent withdrawal of both pioglitazone and GW855266X, for a further 7 days negated any neuroprotective effect suggesting that long-term administration may be required to attenuate the inflammatory response. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: For the first time a partial PPAR-γ agonist has been shown to be neuroprotectory when administered post lesioning in a parkinsonian model. Effects may be via the inhibition of microglial and MMP activation and support further research. SN - 1872-8421 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/22498097/Full_and_partial_peroxisome_proliferation_activated_receptor_γ_agonists_but_not_δ_agonist_rescue_of_dopaminergic_neurons_in_the_6_OHDA_parkinsonian_model_is_associated_with_inhibition_of_microglial_activation_and_MMP_expression_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0165-5728(12)00074-4 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -