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Prevalence of kidney stones in the United States.

Abstract

BACKGROUND

The last nationally representative assessment of kidney stone prevalence in the United States occurred in 1994. After a 13-yr hiatus, the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) reinitiated data collection regarding kidney stone history.

OBJECTIVE

Describe the current prevalence of stone disease in the United States, and identify factors associated with a history of kidney stones.

DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS

A cross-sectional analysis of responses to the 2007-2010 NHANES (n=12 110).

OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS

Self-reported history of kidney stones. Percent prevalence was calculated and multivariable models were used to identify factors associated with a history of kidney stones.

RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS

The prevalence of kidney stones was 8.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 8.1-9.5). Among men, the prevalence of stones was 10.6% (95% CI, 9.4-11.9), compared with 7.1% (95% CI, 6.4-7.8) among women. Kidney stones were more common among obese than normal-weight individuals (11.2% [95% CI, 10.0-12.3] compared with 6.1% [95% CI, 4.8-7.4], respectively; p<0.001). Black, non-Hispanic and Hispanic individuals were less likely to report a history of stone disease than were white, non-Hispanic individuals (black, non-Hispanic: odds ratio [OR]: 0.37 [95% CI, 0.28-0.49], p<0.001; Hispanic: OR: 0.60 [95% CI, 0.49-0.73], p<0.001). Obesity and diabetes were strongly associated with a history of kidney stones in multivariable models. The cross-sectional survey design limits causal inference regarding potential risk factors for kidney stones.

CONCLUSIONS

Kidney stones affect approximately 1 in 11 people in the United States. These data represent a marked increase in stone disease compared with the NHANES III cohort, particularly in black, non-Hispanic and Hispanic individuals. Diet and lifestyle factors likely play an important role in the changing epidemiology of kidney stones.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    UCLA Department of Urology, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90024, USA. cscales@med.net.ucla.edu

    , , ,

    Source

    European urology 62:1 2012 Jul pg 160-5

    MeSH

    Adult
    African Continental Ancestry Group
    Aged
    Aged, 80 and over
    Cross-Sectional Studies
    Diabetes Mellitus
    European Continental Ancestry Group
    Female
    Hispanic Americans
    Humans
    Kidney Calculi
    Male
    Middle Aged
    Nutrition Surveys
    Obesity
    Prevalence
    Self Report
    United States
    Young Adult

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    22498635

    Citation

    Scales, Charles D., et al. "Prevalence of Kidney Stones in the United States." European Urology, vol. 62, no. 1, 2012, pp. 160-5.
    Scales CD, Smith AC, Hanley JM, et al. Prevalence of kidney stones in the United States. Eur Urol. 2012;62(1):160-5.
    Scales, C. D., Smith, A. C., Hanley, J. M., & Saigal, C. S. (2012). Prevalence of kidney stones in the United States. European Urology, 62(1), pp. 160-5. doi:10.1016/j.eururo.2012.03.052.
    Scales CD, et al. Prevalence of Kidney Stones in the United States. Eur Urol. 2012;62(1):160-5. PubMed PMID: 22498635.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Prevalence of kidney stones in the United States. AU - Scales,Charles D,Jr AU - Smith,Alexandria C, AU - Hanley,Janet M, AU - Saigal,Christopher S, AU - ,, Y1 - 2012/03/31/ PY - 2012/02/10/received PY - 2012/03/23/accepted PY - 2012/4/14/entrez PY - 2012/4/14/pubmed PY - 2012/12/12/medline SP - 160 EP - 5 JF - European urology JO - Eur. Urol. VL - 62 IS - 1 N2 - BACKGROUND: The last nationally representative assessment of kidney stone prevalence in the United States occurred in 1994. After a 13-yr hiatus, the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) reinitiated data collection regarding kidney stone history. OBJECTIVE: Describe the current prevalence of stone disease in the United States, and identify factors associated with a history of kidney stones. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A cross-sectional analysis of responses to the 2007-2010 NHANES (n=12 110). OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Self-reported history of kidney stones. Percent prevalence was calculated and multivariable models were used to identify factors associated with a history of kidney stones. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: The prevalence of kidney stones was 8.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 8.1-9.5). Among men, the prevalence of stones was 10.6% (95% CI, 9.4-11.9), compared with 7.1% (95% CI, 6.4-7.8) among women. Kidney stones were more common among obese than normal-weight individuals (11.2% [95% CI, 10.0-12.3] compared with 6.1% [95% CI, 4.8-7.4], respectively; p<0.001). Black, non-Hispanic and Hispanic individuals were less likely to report a history of stone disease than were white, non-Hispanic individuals (black, non-Hispanic: odds ratio [OR]: 0.37 [95% CI, 0.28-0.49], p<0.001; Hispanic: OR: 0.60 [95% CI, 0.49-0.73], p<0.001). Obesity and diabetes were strongly associated with a history of kidney stones in multivariable models. The cross-sectional survey design limits causal inference regarding potential risk factors for kidney stones. CONCLUSIONS: Kidney stones affect approximately 1 in 11 people in the United States. These data represent a marked increase in stone disease compared with the NHANES III cohort, particularly in black, non-Hispanic and Hispanic individuals. Diet and lifestyle factors likely play an important role in the changing epidemiology of kidney stones. SN - 1873-7560 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/22498635/full_citation L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0302-2838(12)00404-6 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -