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Metal ion and other key water quality constituent attenuation in soil columns.
A set of soil columns was constructed to simulate discharge of disinfected tertiary treated wastewater to a river via nearby land application or indirect discharge. The system was primarily designed to observe the fate of metal ions and nutrients. The following three experiments were conducted: (1) flow through saturated soils only, which simulates indirect discharge where water is directly applied to groundwater; (2) flow through unsaturated soil followed by saturated flow, which simulates vadose then saturated zone transport; and (3) saturated flow only using ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid-metal chelates, which determined effects of metal organic complexes on metal mobility through the soil. Metal ion attenuation was substantial but not complete in experiments 1 and 2 (removal: 68% Cu2+, 43% Ni2+, 98% Pb2+, and 96% Hg2+), which was somewhat contrary to modeling results. Cyanide attenuation was also monitored (92% removal). In experiment 3, lead attenuation was somewhat reduced (92% removal) and delayed (requiring additional residence time); copper attenuation was significantly reduced (38% removal) and delayed; and nickel concentrations were higher in the 28-day sample (> 80 microg/L) than in the column feed water (58 microg/L). Near-complete denitrification and total phosphorus attenuation were observed. For the water quality constituents studied, unsaturated (vadose zone) transport did not appear to add additional benefit.
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Water Pollutants, Chemical
Pub Type(s)Journal Article