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Measurement of patient imaging dose for real-time kilovoltage x-ray intrafraction tumour position monitoring in prostate patients.


The dose for image-based motion monitoring of prostate tumours during radiotherapy delivery has not been established. This study aimed to provide quantitative analysis and optimization of the fluoroscopic patient imaging dose during radiotherapy for IMRT and VMAT treatments using standard and hypofractionated treatment schedules. Twenty-two patients with type T1c N0/M0 prostate cancer and three implanted fiducial markers were considered. Minimum field sizes encompassing all fiducial markers plus a 7.5 mm motion margin were determined for each treatment beam, each patient and the complete cohort. Imaging doses were measured for different field sizes and depths in a phantom at 75 and 120 kV. Based on these measurements, the patient imaging doses were then estimated according to beam-on time for clinical settings. The population minimum field size was 5.3 × 6.1 cm², yielding doses of 406 and 185 mGy over the course of an IMRT treatment for 75 kV (10 mAs) and 120 kV (1.04 mAs) imaging respectively, at 1 Hz. The imaging dose was reduced by an average of 28% and 32% by adopting patient-specific and treatment-beam-specific field sizes respectively. Standard fractionation VMAT imaging doses were 37% lower than IMRT doses over a complete treatment. Hypofractionated IMRT stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) and VMAT SBRT imaging doses were 58% and 76% lower than IMRT doses respectively. The patient dose for kilovoltage intrafraction monitoring of the prostate was quantified. Tailoring imaging field sizes to specific patients yielded a significant reduction in the imaging dose, as did adoption of faster treatment modalities such as VMAT.


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    Northern Sydney Cancer Centre, Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney, Australia.

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    Physics in medicine and biology 57:10 2012 May 21 pg 2969-80


    Cohort Studies
    Dose Fractionation
    Phantoms, Imaging
    Prostatic Neoplasms
    Radiation Dosage
    Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated
    Time Factors

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't



    PubMed ID