Genetic engineering of live attenuated influenza viruses.Methods Mol Biol. 2012; 865:163-74.MM
The first live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) was licensed in the USA in 2003; it is a trivalent vaccine composed of two type A (H1N1 and H3N2) and one type B influenza virus each at 10(7) fluorescent focus units (FFU). Each influenza vaccine strain is a reassortant virus that contains the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) gene segments from a wild-type influenza virus and the six internal protein gene segments from a master donor virus (MDV) of either cold-adapted A/Ann Arbor/6/60 or B/Ann Arbor/1/66. MDV confers the cold-adapted, temperature-sensitive, and attenuation phenotypes to the vaccine strains. The reassortant vaccine seeds are currently produced by reverse genetics and amplified in specific pathogen-free (SPF) 9-11 days old embryonated chicken eggs for manufacture. In addition, MDCK cell culture manufacture processes have been developed to produce LAIV for research use and with modifications for clinical and/or commercial grade material production.