Exogenous selenium pretreatment protects rapeseed seedlings from cadmium-induced oxidative stress by upregulating antioxidant defense and methylglyoxal detoxification systems.Biol Trace Elem Res. 2012 Nov; 149(2):248-61.BT
The protective effect of selenium (Se) on antioxidant defense and methylglyoxal (MG) detoxification systems was investigated in leaves of rapeseed (Brassica napus cv. BINA sharisha 3) seedlings under cadmium (Cd)-induced oxidative stress. Two sets of 11-day-old seedlings were pretreated with both 50 and 100 μM Se (Na(2)SeO(4), sodium selenate) for 24 h. Two concentrations of CdCl(2) (0.5 and 1.0 mM) were imposed separately or on the Se-pretreated seedlings, which were grown for another 48 h. Cadmium stress at any levels resulted in the substantial increase in malondialdehyde and H(2)O(2) levels. The ascorbate (AsA) content of the seedlings decreased significantly upon exposure to Cd stress. The amount of reduced glutathione (GSH) increased only at 0.5 mM CdCl(2), while glutathione disulfide (GSSG) increased at any level of Cd, with concomitant decrease in GSH/GSSG ratio. The activities of ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) increased significantly with increased concentration of Cd (both at 0.5 and 1.0 mM CdCl(2)), while the activities of glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) increased only at moderate stress (0.5 mM CdCl(2)) and then decreased at 1.0 mM severe stress (1.0 mM CdCl(2)). Monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), catalase (CAT), glyoxalase I (Gly I), and glyoxalase II (Gly II) activities decreased upon exposure to any levels of Cd. Selenium pretreatment had little effect on the nonenzymatic and enzymatic components of seedlings grown under normal conditions; i.e., they slightly increased the GSH content and the activities of APX, GR, GST, and GPX. On the other hand, Se pretreatment of seedlings under Cd-induced stress showed a synergistic effect; it increased the AsA and GSH contents, the GSH/GSSG ratio, and the activities of APX, MDHAR, DHAR, GR, GPX, CAT, Gly I, and Gly II which ultimately reduced the MDA and H(2)O(2) levels. However, in most cases, pretreatment with 50 μM Se showed better results compared to pretreatment with 100 μM Se. The results indicate that the exogenous application of Se at low concentrations increases the tolerance of plants to Cd-induced oxidative damage by enhancing their antioxidant defense and MG detoxification systems.