Pathogenesis and treatment of hepatitis e virus infection.Gastroenterology. 2012 May; 142(6):1388-1397.e1.G
Hepatitis E has been considered to be a travel-associated, acute, self-limiting liver disease that causes fulminant hepatic failure in specific high-risk groups only. However, hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection can also be acquired in industrialized countries-HEV genotype 3 infection is a zoonosis, with pigs and rodents serving as animal reservoirs. In recent years, cases of chronic HEV infection that were associated with progressive liver disease have been described in several cohorts of immunocompromised individuals, including recipients of organ transplants. The topic of hepatitis E is therefore re-emerging and has raised the following important questions: what is the risk for HEV infection in Western countries (eg, from eating uncooked meat)? How frequently does chronic hepatitis E develop among human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients and recipients of organ transplants? What are the treatment options? What is the current status of vaccine development? What do we know about the pathogenesis of HEV infection, and why does it have a more severe course in pregnant women? This review summarizes the current knowledge on the pathogenesis and treatment of HEV infection.