[Statins and kidney disease].G Ital Nefrol. 2012 Mar-Apr; 29(2):160-73.GI
The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is increasing worldwide. This clinical and social problem is mainly related to the ongoing epidemic of obesity and metabolic syndrome resulting in hypertension and diabetes mellitus. CKD is a well-recognized risk multiplier for the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD), and it is widely known that CVD is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with CKD. Lipid metabolism abnormalities are commonly associated with CKD. These consist of increased levels of low-density lipoproteins (LDL), triglycerides, very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) and lipoprotein(a), and reduced levels of HDL cholesterol. Lipid abnormalities contribute to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in CKD patients. Some evidence also suggests that dyslipidemia may contribute to the progression of renal disease associated with type 1 and type 2 diabetic as well as non-diabetic renal disease. In the general population, HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) reduce the cardiovascular risk and prevent CVD. Similar data from secondary analyses of CKD subgroups of larger prospective trials using statins suggest a beneficial effect on cardiovascular outcomes and - albeit with more conflicting evidence - the progression of renal disease. Statins reduce blood levels of LDL cholesterol but also have multiple effects above and beyond cholesterol lowering, including direct effects on vascular tissue, kidney, bone, and glucose metabolism. The evidence linking dyslipidemia management with statins to cardiovascular disease and the decline in renal function in CKD patients will be presented in this review.