Gestational bodyweight gain among underweight Japanese women related to small-for-gestational-age birth.J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2012 Sep; 38(9):1137-44.JO
The prevalence of underweight women, who have an increased risk for small-for-gestational-age (SGA) birth, is increasing in Japan. We examined the associations of pre-pregnancy body mass index and gestational weight gain (GWG) with SGA birth among Japanese women.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
We conducted a prospective cohort study of 1391 women who delivered full-term singleton babies. SGA was defined as below the 10th percentile of birthweight at each gestational age, baby sex, and parity. We calculated the 5th percentile of birthweight in the same way for another threshold for SGA. According to pre-pregnancy body mass index, we divided the participants into three groups: underweight (<18.5 kg/m(2)), normal weight (18.5-24.9 kg/m(2)), and overweight and obese (≥25.0 kg/m(2)).
SGA birth was observed most frequently among the underweight group (13.8%). Underweight was associated with an increased risk of SGA birth. The multiple-adjusted odds ratio for underweight was 1.96 (95% confidence interval, 1.23-3.11) compared with normal weight. Sufficient GWG reduced the incidence and the multiple-adjusted odds ratio for 1-kg increase of GWG was 0.86 (0.81-0.92). The same tendency was observed for the delivery of infants below the 5th birthweight percentile. Women with underweight and normal weight who had 9.0 kg or less of GWG had a significantly higher risk of SGA birth than women with normal weight who had 9.1-11.0 kg of GWG.
Underweight and poor GWG were associated with a higher incidence of SGA birth. However, the incidence of SGA birth among underweight women was not increased significantly if they had sufficient GWG.