The flavonoid resveratrol suppresses growth of human malignant pleural mesothelioma cells through direct inhibition of specificity protein 1.Int J Mol Med 2012; 30(1):21-7IJ
Resveratrol (Res), from the skin of red grapes, induces apoptosis in some malignant cells, but there are no reports on the apoptotic effect of Res on human malignant pleural mesothelioma. We found that Res interacts with specificity protein 1 (Sp1). The IC50 for Res was 17 µM in MSTO-211H cells. Cell viability was decreased and apoptotic cell death was increased by Res (0-60 µM). Res increased the Sub-G1 population in MSTO-211H cells and significantly suppressed Sp1 protein levels, but not Sp1 mRNA levels. Res modulated the expression of Sp1 regulatory proteins including p21, p27, cyclin D1, Mcl-1 and survivin in mesothelioma cells. After treatment with Res, apoptosis signaling cascades were activated by the activation of Bid, Bim, caspase-3 and PARP, upregulation of Bax and downregulation of Bcl-xL. Res (20 mg/kg daily for 4 weeks) effectively suppressed tumor growth in vivo in BALB/c athymic (nu+/nu+) mice injected with MSTO-211H cells, an effect that was mediated by inhibition of Sp1 expression and induction of apoptotic cell death. Our results strongly suggest that Sp1 is a novel molecular target of Res in human malignant pleural mesothelioma.