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Medicinal Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (dronabinol) impairs on-the-road driving performance of occasional and heavy cannabis users but is not detected in Standard Field Sobriety Tests.
Addiction. 2012 Oct; 107(10):1837-44.A

Abstract

AIMS

The acute and chronic effects of dronabinol [medicinal Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)] on actual driving performance and the Standard Field Sobriety Test (SFST) were assessed. It was hypothesized that occasional users would be impaired on these tests and that heavy users would show less impairment due to tolerance.

DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS

Double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, three-way cross-over study. Twelve occasional and 12 heavy cannabis users (14 males/10 females) received single doses of placebo, 10 and 20 mg dronabinol.

MEASUREMENTS

Standard deviation of lateral position (SDLP; i.e. weaving) is the primary measure of road-tracking control. Time to speed adaptation (TSA) is the primary reaction-time measure in the car-following test. Percentage of impaired individuals on the SFST and subjective high on a visual analogue scale were secondary measures.

FINDINGS

Superiority tests showed that SDLP (P = 0.008) and TSA (P = 0.011) increased after dronabinol in occasional users. Equivalence tests demonstrated that dronabinol-induced increments in SDLP were bigger than impairment associated with BAC of 0.5 mg/ml in occasional and heavy users, although the magnitude of driving impairment was generally less in heavy users. The SFST did not discriminate between conditions. Levels of subjective high were comparable in occasional and heavy users.

CONCLUSIONS

Dronabinol (medicinal tetrahydrocannabinol) impairs driving performance in occasional and heavy users in a dose-dependent way, but to a lesser degree in heavy users due possibly to tolerance. The Standard Field Sobriety Test is not sensitive to clinically relevant driving impairment caused by oral tetrahydrocannabinol.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Neuropsychology and Psychopharmacology, Faculty Psychology and Neuroscience, Maastricht University, Maastricht, the Netherlands.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

22553980

Citation

Bosker, Wendy M., et al. "Medicinal Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (dronabinol) Impairs On-the-road Driving Performance of Occasional and Heavy Cannabis Users but Is Not Detected in Standard Field Sobriety Tests." Addiction (Abingdon, England), vol. 107, no. 10, 2012, pp. 1837-44.
Bosker WM, Kuypers KP, Theunissen EL, et al. Medicinal Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (dronabinol) impairs on-the-road driving performance of occasional and heavy cannabis users but is not detected in Standard Field Sobriety Tests. Addiction. 2012;107(10):1837-44.
Bosker, W. M., Kuypers, K. P., Theunissen, E. L., Surinx, A., Blankespoor, R. J., Skopp, G., Jeffery, W. K., Walls, H. C., van Leeuwen, C. J., & Ramaekers, J. G. (2012). Medicinal Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (dronabinol) impairs on-the-road driving performance of occasional and heavy cannabis users but is not detected in Standard Field Sobriety Tests. Addiction (Abingdon, England), 107(10), 1837-44. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1360-0443.2012.03928.x
Bosker WM, et al. Medicinal Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (dronabinol) Impairs On-the-road Driving Performance of Occasional and Heavy Cannabis Users but Is Not Detected in Standard Field Sobriety Tests. Addiction. 2012;107(10):1837-44. PubMed PMID: 22553980.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Medicinal Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (dronabinol) impairs on-the-road driving performance of occasional and heavy cannabis users but is not detected in Standard Field Sobriety Tests. AU - Bosker,Wendy M, AU - Kuypers,Kim P C, AU - Theunissen,Eef L, AU - Surinx,Anke, AU - Blankespoor,Roos J, AU - Skopp,Gisela, AU - Jeffery,Wayne K, AU - Walls,H Chip, AU - van Leeuwen,Cees J, AU - Ramaekers,Johannes G, Y1 - 2012/07/12/ PY - 2011/12/08/received PY - 2012/03/09/revised PY - 2012/04/30/accepted PY - 2012/5/5/entrez PY - 2012/5/5/pubmed PY - 2013/1/29/medline SP - 1837 EP - 44 JF - Addiction (Abingdon, England) JO - Addiction VL - 107 IS - 10 N2 - AIMS: The acute and chronic effects of dronabinol [medicinal Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)] on actual driving performance and the Standard Field Sobriety Test (SFST) were assessed. It was hypothesized that occasional users would be impaired on these tests and that heavy users would show less impairment due to tolerance. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, three-way cross-over study. Twelve occasional and 12 heavy cannabis users (14 males/10 females) received single doses of placebo, 10 and 20 mg dronabinol. MEASUREMENTS: Standard deviation of lateral position (SDLP; i.e. weaving) is the primary measure of road-tracking control. Time to speed adaptation (TSA) is the primary reaction-time measure in the car-following test. Percentage of impaired individuals on the SFST and subjective high on a visual analogue scale were secondary measures. FINDINGS: Superiority tests showed that SDLP (P = 0.008) and TSA (P = 0.011) increased after dronabinol in occasional users. Equivalence tests demonstrated that dronabinol-induced increments in SDLP were bigger than impairment associated with BAC of 0.5 mg/ml in occasional and heavy users, although the magnitude of driving impairment was generally less in heavy users. The SFST did not discriminate between conditions. Levels of subjective high were comparable in occasional and heavy users. CONCLUSIONS: Dronabinol (medicinal tetrahydrocannabinol) impairs driving performance in occasional and heavy users in a dose-dependent way, but to a lesser degree in heavy users due possibly to tolerance. The Standard Field Sobriety Test is not sensitive to clinically relevant driving impairment caused by oral tetrahydrocannabinol. SN - 1360-0443 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/22553980/Medicinal_Δ_9___tetrahydrocannabinol__dronabinol__impairs_on_the_road_driving_performance_of_occasional_and_heavy_cannabis_users_but_is_not_detected_in_Standard_Field_Sobriety_Tests_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1360-0443.2012.03928.x DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -