Depression is independently associated with 7-year mortality in patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention: results from the RESEARCH registry.Int J Cardiol 2013; 167(6):2496-501IJ
Depression has been associated with poor prognosis in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), but little is known about the impact of depression on long-term mortality. We examined whether depression was associated with 7-year mortality in patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), after adjusting for socio-demographic and clinical characteristics, anxiety, and the distressed (Type D) personality.
The sample comprised a cohort of consecutive PCI patients (N=1234; 72.0% men; mean age 62.0 ± 11.1 years, range [26-90] years) from the Rapamycin-Eluting Stent Evaluated At Rotterdam Cardiology Hospital (RESEARCH) registry. At baseline (i.e., 6 months post-PCI), patients completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) to assess anxiety and depression and the Type D scale (DS14) to assess Type D personality. The endpoint was defined as all-cause mortality.
The prevalence of depression (HADS-D ≥ 8) was 26.2% (324/1236). After a median follow-up of 7.0 ± 1.6 years, 187 deaths (15.2%) from any cause were recorded. The incidence of all-cause mortality in depressed patients was 23.5% (76/324) versus 12.2% (111/910) in non-depressed patients. Cumulative hazard functions differed significantly for depressed versus non-depressed patients (log-rank X(2)=25.57, p<.001). In multivariable analysis, depression remained independently associated with all-cause mortality (HR=1.63; 95% CI [1.05-2.71], p=.038), after adjusting for socio-demographic and clinical characteristics, anxiety, and Type D personality.
Depression was independently associated with a 1.6-fold increased risk for 7-year mortality, above and beyond anxiety and Type D personality. Future studies are warranted to further elucidate the potential pathways linking depression to long-term mortality following PCI.