The disturbance of hemostasis induced by hyperhomocysteinemia; the role of antioxidants.Acta Biochim Pol. 2012; 59(2):185-94.AB
Elevated concentration of homocysteine (Hcy) in human tissues, definied as hyperhomocysteinemia has been correlated with some diseases, such as cardiovascular, neurodegenerative, and kidney disorders. Homocysteine occurs in human blood plasma in several forms, including the most reactive one, the homocysteine thiolactone (HTL) - a cyclic thioester, which represents up to 0.29% of total plasma Hcy. In the article, the effects of hyperhomocysteinemia on the complex process of hemostasis, which regulates the flowing properties of blood, are described. Possible interactions of homocysteine and its different derivatives, including homocysteine thiolactone, with the major components of hemostasis such as endothelial cells, blood platelets, plasmatic fibrinogen and plasminogen, are also discussed. Modifications of hemostatic proteins (N-homocysteinylation or S-homocysteinylation) induced by Hcy or its thiolactone seem to be the main cause of homocysteine biotoxicity in hemostatic abnormalities. It is suggested that Hcy and HTL may also act as oxidants, but various polyphenolic antioxidants are able to inhibit the oxidative damage induced by Hcy or HTL. We also discuss the role of phenolic antioxidants in hyperhomocysteinemia -induced changes in hemostasis.