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A placebo-controlled study to assess Standardized Field Sobriety Tests performance during alcohol and cannabis intoxication in heavy cannabis users and accuracy of point of collection testing devices for detecting THC in oral fluid.
Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2012 Oct; 223(4):439-46.P

Abstract

RATIONALE

Standardized Field Sobriety Tests (SFST) and oral fluid devices are used to screen for driving impairment and roadside drug detection, respectively. SFST have been validated for alcohol, but their sensitivity to impairment induced by other drugs is relatively unknown. The sensitivity and specificity for Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) of most oral fluid devices have been low.

OBJECTIVE

This study assessed the effects of smoking cannabis with and without alcohol on SFST performance. Presence of THC in oral fluid was examined with two devices (Dräger Drug Test® 5000 and Securetec Drugwipe® 5).

METHODS

Twenty heavy cannabis users (15 males and 5 females; mean age, 24.3 years) participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study assessing percentage of impaired individuals on the SFST and the sensitivity of two oral fluid devices. Participants received alcohol doses or alcohol placebo in combination with 400 μg/kg body weight THC. We aimed to reach peak blood alcohol concentration values of 0.5 and 0.7 mg/mL.

RESULTS

Cannabis was significantly related to performance on the one-leg stand (p = 0.037). Alcohol in combination with cannabis was significantly related to impairment on horizontal gaze nystagmus (p = 0.029). The Dräger Drug Test® 5000 demonstrated a high sensitivity for THC, whereas the sensitivity of the Securetec Drugwipe® 5 was low.

CONCLUSIONS

SFST were mildly sensitive to impairment from cannabis in heavy users. Lack of sensitivity might be attributed to tolerance and time of testing. SFST were sensitive to both doses of alcohol. The Dräger Drug Test® 5000 appears to be a promising tool for detecting THC in oral fluid as far as correct THC detection is concerned.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Neuropsychology and Psychopharmacology, Faculty of Psychology and Neuroscience, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands. Wendy.Bosker@maastrichtuniversity.nlNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Comparative Study
Controlled Clinical Trial
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

22581391

Citation

Bosker, W M., et al. "A Placebo-controlled Study to Assess Standardized Field Sobriety Tests Performance During Alcohol and Cannabis Intoxication in Heavy Cannabis Users and Accuracy of Point of Collection Testing Devices for Detecting THC in Oral Fluid." Psychopharmacology, vol. 223, no. 4, 2012, pp. 439-46.
Bosker WM, Theunissen EL, Conen S, et al. A placebo-controlled study to assess Standardized Field Sobriety Tests performance during alcohol and cannabis intoxication in heavy cannabis users and accuracy of point of collection testing devices for detecting THC in oral fluid. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2012;223(4):439-46.
Bosker, W. M., Theunissen, E. L., Conen, S., Kuypers, K. P., Jeffery, W. K., Walls, H. C., Kauert, G. F., Toennes, S. W., Moeller, M. R., & Ramaekers, J. G. (2012). A placebo-controlled study to assess Standardized Field Sobriety Tests performance during alcohol and cannabis intoxication in heavy cannabis users and accuracy of point of collection testing devices for detecting THC in oral fluid. Psychopharmacology, 223(4), 439-46.
Bosker WM, et al. A Placebo-controlled Study to Assess Standardized Field Sobriety Tests Performance During Alcohol and Cannabis Intoxication in Heavy Cannabis Users and Accuracy of Point of Collection Testing Devices for Detecting THC in Oral Fluid. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2012;223(4):439-46. PubMed PMID: 22581391.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - A placebo-controlled study to assess Standardized Field Sobriety Tests performance during alcohol and cannabis intoxication in heavy cannabis users and accuracy of point of collection testing devices for detecting THC in oral fluid. AU - Bosker,W M, AU - Theunissen,E L, AU - Conen,S, AU - Kuypers,K P C, AU - Jeffery,W K, AU - Walls,H C, AU - Kauert,G F, AU - Toennes,S W, AU - Moeller,M R, AU - Ramaekers,J G, Y1 - 2012/05/13/ PY - 2011/11/20/received PY - 2012/04/23/accepted PY - 2012/5/15/entrez PY - 2012/5/15/pubmed PY - 2013/2/14/medline SP - 439 EP - 46 JF - Psychopharmacology JO - Psychopharmacology (Berl) VL - 223 IS - 4 N2 - RATIONALE: Standardized Field Sobriety Tests (SFST) and oral fluid devices are used to screen for driving impairment and roadside drug detection, respectively. SFST have been validated for alcohol, but their sensitivity to impairment induced by other drugs is relatively unknown. The sensitivity and specificity for Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) of most oral fluid devices have been low. OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the effects of smoking cannabis with and without alcohol on SFST performance. Presence of THC in oral fluid was examined with two devices (Dräger Drug Test® 5000 and Securetec Drugwipe® 5). METHODS: Twenty heavy cannabis users (15 males and 5 females; mean age, 24.3 years) participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study assessing percentage of impaired individuals on the SFST and the sensitivity of two oral fluid devices. Participants received alcohol doses or alcohol placebo in combination with 400 μg/kg body weight THC. We aimed to reach peak blood alcohol concentration values of 0.5 and 0.7 mg/mL. RESULTS: Cannabis was significantly related to performance on the one-leg stand (p = 0.037). Alcohol in combination with cannabis was significantly related to impairment on horizontal gaze nystagmus (p = 0.029). The Dräger Drug Test® 5000 demonstrated a high sensitivity for THC, whereas the sensitivity of the Securetec Drugwipe® 5 was low. CONCLUSIONS: SFST were mildly sensitive to impairment from cannabis in heavy users. Lack of sensitivity might be attributed to tolerance and time of testing. SFST were sensitive to both doses of alcohol. The Dräger Drug Test® 5000 appears to be a promising tool for detecting THC in oral fluid as far as correct THC detection is concerned. SN - 1432-2072 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/22581391/A_placebo_controlled_study_to_assess_Standardized_Field_Sobriety_Tests_performance_during_alcohol_and_cannabis_intoxication_in_heavy_cannabis_users_and_accuracy_of_point_of_collection_testing_devices_for_detecting_THC_in_oral_fluid_ L2 - https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00213-012-2732-y DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -