Biochemical basis of organophosphate and carbamate resistance in Asian citrus psyllid.J Econ Entomol. 2012 Apr; 105(2):540-8.JE
The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, is a worldwide pest of citrus, which vectors the putative causal pathogen of huanglongbing. Current management practices warrant continuous monitoring of field populations for insecticide resistance. Baseline activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), general esterase, and glutathione S-transferase as well as sensitivity of AChE to selected organophosphate and carbamate insecticides were established for a susceptible laboratory strain (Lab) and compared with several field populations of D. citri from Florida. The specific activity of AChE in various D. citri populations ranged from 0.77 to 1.29 microM min(-1) mg of protein(-1); the Lab strain was characterized by the highest activity. Although reduced AChE sensitivity was observed in the Lab strain compared with field populations, overlap of 95% confidence intervals of I50 values (concentration required for 50% AChE activity inhibition) suggests no significant difference in AChE sensitivity among all populations tested for a given insecticide. There was no significant evidence of target site insensitivity in field populations that were exposed to the selected organophosphate and carbamate insecticides tested. The specific activity of general esterase and glutathione S-transferase was lowest in the Lab strain and was generally comparable to that of the field populations evaluated. The current data provide a mode-of-action specific baseline for future monitoring of resistance to organophosphate and carbamate insecticides in populations of D. citri.