EUS-guided vascular access and therapy.Gastrointest Endosc Clin N Am. 2012 Apr; 22(2):303-14, x.GE
The gastrointestinal tract provides a unique window to access vascular structures in the mediastinum and abdomen. The advent of interventional endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) has enabled access to these structures with standard fine-needle aspiration. EUS-guided treatment of varices has been largely reserved as rescue therapy for refractory bleeding but has theoretic advantages over conventional endoscopy-guided treatment. Data are limited and multicenter, prospective controlled trials are needed to show clinical effectiveness and safety in humans. The development of new tools designed for EUS-guided vascular therapy is needed.