[Differences in dietary habits and food preferences of adults depending on the age].Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig 2012; 63(1):73-81RP
Changes in the structure and functioning of the body occur with age. Also nutrition is continually modified. Eating habits may affect favorably or unfavorably on the process of aging and the functioning of various tissues, organs and the whole body.
The purpose of the study was to evaluate dietary habits and food preferences of patients in different age groups. In the studied groups also body mass index (BMI) and body fat content were analyzed.
MATERIAL AND METHOD
237 people (133 women and 104 men, age 18-79 years) were examined. The participants completed questionnaires of the frequency of food consumption and food preferences. The height, weight, body mass index (BMI), the percentage of body fat (BIA) were also measured. For statistical analysis the assessment of correlation Spearman's rank order and nonparametric ANOVA rank Kruskal-Wallis were used.
With age, the frequency of milk (p < 0,05) and cheese (p < 0,05) consumption decreased whereas consumption of cottage cheese increased (p < 0,05). Increased consumption of offal (p < 0,05), salt (p < 0,05) and coffee (p< 0, 05) was also noted. With age, the respondents preferred animal fats (p < 0.05) and vegetable fats (p < 0.05). The frequency of butter consumption decreased (p < 0.05) and consumption of vegetable fats increased (p < 0,05). The consumption of brown rice (p < 0,05), whole wheat pasta (p < 0,05) and cereals (p < 0,05) was reduced whereas the consumption of groats (p < 0,05) potatos (p < 0,05) and fruits (p < 0,05) increased. The decreased desire (p < 0,05) and frequency of nuts / almonds consumption (p < 0,05) were noted. With age, the BMI and percentage of body fat were increasing (p < 0,05, R = 0,39, p < 0,05, R = 0,31, respectively).
Taste preferences and dietary habits vary depending on age and may be one of the elements affecting the increase in BMI, body fat content, bone mass loss and increased risk of metabolic disorders. The observed changes in dietary habits can contribute to the development of dyslipidemia, glucose dysmetabolism and arterial hypertension, especially in the presence of overweight and obesity.