IgA antibodies against deamidated gliadin peptides in patients with chronic liver diseases.Clin Chim Acta 2012; 413(19-20):1683-8CC
IgA antibodies against tissue-transglutaminase (anti-tTG-IgA) and IgA and IgG antibodies against deamidated gliadin peptides (anti-DGP-IgA and anti-DGP-IgG) are considered specific for celiac disease (CD) whereas, patients with chronic liver disorders have an increased risk of latent CD development. We investigated the prevalence and clinical significance of anti-DGP-IgA, anti-DGP-IgG and anti-tTG-IgA in a large cohort of patients with chronic liver diseases.
668 patients without gastrointestinal symptoms (426 viral hepatitis, 94 autoimmune liver diseases, 61 alcoholic disease, 46 non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, 41 with other liver disorders) were investigated by ELISAs (INOVA Diagnostics). Patients positive for at least one autoantibody invited for a small-intestinal biopsy and HLA-DQ typing.
Anti-DGP-IgA were detected in 8.5%, anti-DGP-IgG in only one (0.15%, P<0.001) and anti-tTG-IgA in 5.8% of patients (P=0.05). Fifty-two were anti-DGP-IgA(+)/anti-tTG-IgA(-), 34 anti-DGP-IgA(-)/anti-tTG-IgA(+), and 5 anti-DGP-IgA(+)/anti-tTG-IgA(+). Anti-DGP-IgA positivity was associated with older age (P<0.05), cirrhosis (P<0.05) and increased IgA (P<0.05) whereas, anti-tTG-IgA only with cirrhosis (P<0.05). Histology and HLA-typing compatible with CD was revealed in 4/14 anti-DGP-IgA(+)/anti-tTG-IgA(-), 0/13 anti-DGP-IgA(-)/anti-tTG-IgA(+) and 2/2 anti-DGP-IgA(+)/anti-tTG-IgA(+). All 6 patients diagnosed with CD were anti-DGP-IgA(+) and only 2 anti-tTG-IgA(+).
Although a significant number of patients had detectable CD-related autoantibodies, anti-DGP-IgA test seems better than anti-tTG-IgA for unmasking occult forms of CD in patients with chronic liver disorders. The known good performance for CD diagnosis of anti-DGP-IgG test was not confirmed in this specific group of patients.