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Selenium and prostate cancer: systematic review and meta-analysis.

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Prostate cancer is a growing public health problem. Several human studies have shown a potentially protective effect of selenium, but the conclusions from published reports are inconsistent.

OBJECTIVE

The objective was to examine the evidence for relations between selenium intake, selenium status, and prostate cancer risk.

DESIGN

This was a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials, case-control studies, and prospective cohort studies. The World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research Continuous Update Project database was searched up to September 2010. The studies included reported measurements of selenium intake or status (plasma, serum, or toenail selenium), assessments of prostate cancer cases (number of events), and the RR in the adult population. Meta-analyses were performed, and study quality, heterogeneity, and small study effects were assessed. Dose-response meta-analyses were used, with restricted cubic splines and fractional polynomials for nonlinear trends, to investigate the association between selenium status and prostate cancer risk.

RESULTS

Twelve studies with a total of 13,254 participants and 5007 cases of prostate cancer were included. The relation between plasma/serum selenium and prostate cancer in a nonlinear dose-response meta-analysis showed that the risk decreased with increasing plasma/serum selenium up to 170 ng/mL. Three high-quality studies included in the meta-analysis of toenail selenium and cancer risk indicated a reduction in prostate cancer risk (estimated RR: 0.29; 95% CI: 0.14, 0.61) with a toenail selenium concentration between 0.85 and 0.94 μg/g.

CONCLUSION

The relation between selenium status and decreased prostate cancer risk was examined over a relatively narrow range of selenium status; further studies in low-selenium populations are required.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Department of Nutrition, Norwich Medical School, University of East Anglia, Norwich, Norfolk, United Kingdom.

    , , , , , , , , , , ,

    Source

    MeSH

    Adult
    Diet
    Humans
    Male
    Nails
    Nutritional Status
    Prostatic Neoplasms
    Risk Factors
    Selenium

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Meta-Analysis
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
    Review
    Systematic Review

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    22648711

    Citation

    Hurst, Rachel, et al. "Selenium and Prostate Cancer: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis." The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 96, no. 1, 2012, pp. 111-22.
    Hurst R, Hooper L, Norat T, et al. Selenium and prostate cancer: systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012;96(1):111-22.
    Hurst, R., Hooper, L., Norat, T., Lau, R., Aune, D., Greenwood, D. C., ... Fairweather-Tait, S. J. (2012). Selenium and prostate cancer: systematic review and meta-analysis. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 96(1), pp. 111-22. doi:10.3945/ajcn.111.033373.
    Hurst R, et al. Selenium and Prostate Cancer: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012;96(1):111-22. PubMed PMID: 22648711.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Selenium and prostate cancer: systematic review and meta-analysis. AU - Hurst,Rachel, AU - Hooper,Lee, AU - Norat,Teresa, AU - Lau,Rosa, AU - Aune,Dagfinn, AU - Greenwood,Darren C, AU - Vieira,Rui, AU - Collings,Rachel, AU - Harvey,Linda J, AU - Sterne,Jonathan A C, AU - Beynon,Rebecca, AU - Savović,Jelena, AU - Fairweather-Tait,Susan J, Y1 - 2012/05/30/ PY - 2012/6/1/entrez PY - 2012/6/1/pubmed PY - 2012/9/8/medline SP - 111 EP - 22 JF - The American journal of clinical nutrition JO - Am. J. Clin. Nutr. VL - 96 IS - 1 N2 - BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer is a growing public health problem. Several human studies have shown a potentially protective effect of selenium, but the conclusions from published reports are inconsistent. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to examine the evidence for relations between selenium intake, selenium status, and prostate cancer risk. DESIGN: This was a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials, case-control studies, and prospective cohort studies. The World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research Continuous Update Project database was searched up to September 2010. The studies included reported measurements of selenium intake or status (plasma, serum, or toenail selenium), assessments of prostate cancer cases (number of events), and the RR in the adult population. Meta-analyses were performed, and study quality, heterogeneity, and small study effects were assessed. Dose-response meta-analyses were used, with restricted cubic splines and fractional polynomials for nonlinear trends, to investigate the association between selenium status and prostate cancer risk. RESULTS: Twelve studies with a total of 13,254 participants and 5007 cases of prostate cancer were included. The relation between plasma/serum selenium and prostate cancer in a nonlinear dose-response meta-analysis showed that the risk decreased with increasing plasma/serum selenium up to 170 ng/mL. Three high-quality studies included in the meta-analysis of toenail selenium and cancer risk indicated a reduction in prostate cancer risk (estimated RR: 0.29; 95% CI: 0.14, 0.61) with a toenail selenium concentration between 0.85 and 0.94 μg/g. CONCLUSION: The relation between selenium status and decreased prostate cancer risk was examined over a relatively narrow range of selenium status; further studies in low-selenium populations are required. SN - 1938-3207 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/22648711/Selenium_and_prostate_cancer:_systematic_review_and_meta_analysis_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article-lookup/doi/10.3945/ajcn.111.033373 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -